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2017年12月16日 11:12:39来源:求医媒体

Everybody wants to be happy. Thus, the onslaught of lists enumerating various happy-making suggestions: Learn to let go! Live in the present! Don#39;t sweat the small stuff!每个人都渴望快乐的生活。于是,各种关于幸福秘诀的清单纷纷出炉:学会放手!活在当下!莫在小事上纠结!Which is all fine and good—there#39;s clearly nothing wrong with a positive outlook. But that list has been done to death ... and aren#39;t those peppy platitudes slightly obvious anyway? Instead, we offer an alternative list of habits—more concrete and backed by science—employed by those who#39;ve successfully located the bliss button.这些建议当然不错——毕竟每个人都想要有积极的人生。只是它们的内容都被说滥了……那些陈词滥调难道不是显而易见的吗?所以,今天我们给大家提供一份不一样的清单——它们就是那些幸福的人正在践行着的秘诀,这些秘诀更具体,且有科学依据。1. They go to parks漫步公园One study found that people who live in cities with more green space feel better than those surrounded by man-made materials. How much better? The happiness jump associated with green space is equal to about one-third the boost in well-being that people get from being married. In a similar vein, another study found that a five-minute dose of nature improves self-esteem; green areas with water were found to be the most beneficial.研究表明,住在城市绿地附近的人要比整日身在人造材料中的人幸福感强烈。有多幸福呢?打个比方说,与绿地相邻的人,其幸福感的提升幅度大概有人们结婚时幸福感的三分之一。同样,另有研究明,亲近自然哪怕五分钟,也有利于自尊心的提升;若绿地还能伴水那更是最好不过了。2. They live in Scandinavian countries生活在北欧国家Okay, so your place of residence may not be a habit so much as a circumstance, but this is interesting. According to the ed Nations General Assembly#39;s second World Happiness Report, Denmark is the happiest country, followed by Norway, Switzerland, the Netherlands, Sweden and Canada. Note that all of these are generally northern countries, what#39;s the deal? See number 3.好吧,也许你觉得居住的地方只能算环境因素,称不上是习惯,但事实并非如此。根据联合国大会发布的第二份全球幸福指数报告,幸福度最高的国家是丹麦,其次是挪威、瑞士、荷兰、瑞典和加拿大。注意,这些国家绝大多数都位于北欧。为什么会这样呢?看看下一条你就知道了。3. They practice #39;hygge#39;践行“修噶”文化Huh? Pronounced HYU-gah, Danes make it through their long dark winters with a healthy dose of this to maintain their position as the happiest place in the world. With no real equivalent in the English language, hygge is a cultural concept that revolves around intimacy, gratitude and family; it#39;s a kind of emotional coziness. As described by one Dane, ;It#39;s like a feeling, and it#39;s big at Christmastime. The candles, the food, being with your family.; But it lasts all year.啥?“修噶”读作“HYU-gah”,有了它,丹麦人才能度过漫漫冬夜。因为它,丹麦得以一直是世界上最幸福的国家。“修噶”是一个涉及亲密、感恩与家庭的文化概念,是一种精神层面的温馨舒适,英语中没有与之对应的词。有丹麦人这样描述“修噶”:“它可以说是一种感受,尤其是圣诞期间和家人围坐在一起时,伴着摇曳的烛光和丰盛的食物,这种感受尤为强烈。”不过对丹麦人来说,这种感受可以持续一整年。4. They have satisfying jobs—and if not, they quit有一份满意的工作——不满意就辞职It#39;s no surprise that workers who are happy with their work are happy with their lives. And in fact, a Gallup poll found that workers who were happily engaged and enthusiastic about work were happiest in life, with 71 percent of them describing themselves as ;thriving.; And it#39;s probably not that surprising that only 42 percent of poll respondents who said they were disconnected from their work described themselves as thriving. What#39;s surprising is that 48 percent of those unemployed see themselves as thriving; that#39;s 6 percent more than those with jobs; for many, being unemployed is happier than having a crummy job.工作顺利的人,生活也同样幸福,这不足为奇。美国盖洛普民意测验(Gallup poll)显示,那些工作专注有的人,生活中也是最幸福的,其中认为自己“朝气蓬勃”的人达71%。所以,当那些认为无法全身心投入工作的人中,只有42%认为自己有朝气,也在情理之中了。但令人惊讶的是,调查中有48%的无业者认为自己很有朝气,这比有工作的人还多出6%;对大多数人来说,与其干一份糟糕的工作还不如歇业在家。5. They smell the flowers嗅花香No, this isn#39;t an homage to the ;stop and smell the roses; cliche; it#39;s not about taking time for the delights in your life (although stopping and smelling the roses is a grand thing to do). It#39;s about floral scents and the effect they have on mood. Much research has been conducted on how floral scents can influence behaviors. In one set of experiments, researchers found that a floral-scented room led to increased happiness and friendliness. One researcher noted that the floral smell is an emotion manipulator and improves the mood. ;The floral odors can make you happy; floral odors promote social interaction, social approach kinds of behaviors,; said Jeannette Haviland-Jones, of Rutgers University.这么做可不是为了践行“停下脚步,享受生活”这一陈词滥调,它与花时间享受生活无关(虽然这确实很棒)。它就是与花的香气有关——利于调节情绪。许多有关于花香如何对行为产生影响的研究都明了这一点。比如,研究者通过实验发现,处在花香四溢的房间里,人们的幸福感与亲切感会随之上升。一位研究者认为,花香能够操纵情绪,改善心情。美国罗格斯大学的珍妮特·哈维兰德-琼斯说:“花香除了能够让人心情愉快,还能促进人际交往这种社会行为。”6. They get dirty亲近泥土Commence making mud pies. Medical researchers in the U.K. found evidence that “friendly” bacteria found in soil may activate the immune system, boost the brain compound serotonin and help ward off depression.开始学着玩泥巴吧。英国的医学研究者实,泥土中存在的一些有益菌能够增强我们的免疫系统功能,促进大脑五羟色胺化合物(注:神经递质,能够影响情绪)的生成,帮助人们摆脱忧郁。7. They exercise适度锻炼We know you didn#39;t want to hear that, but fret not. The good news is that middle-aged women don#39;t have to run marathons or go all-out for the emotional benefits of physical activity to kick in. And in fact, a study found that moderate intensity exercise—as opposed to intense exercise—caused more women to report later that they were in a better mood and to have greater feelings of energy, psychological well-being and ;self-efficacy.;我们知道,你不想听这个陈词滥调,不过先别急。好消息是,中年女性为获得情绪上的放松,不用非要跑马拉松或是参加其他令人疲惫的体育活动。实际上,有研究表明,适度的锻炼要比剧烈运动更能让女性身心愉悦、活力充沛、精神充实;她们的“自我效能(注:指人们对自身能否利用所拥有的技能去完成某项工作行为的自信程度)”也会更强。8. They don#39;t try to be … happy?不去刻意追寻快乐Oops. Now that we#39;ve told you the secrets for happiness, we#39;re here to dash your dreams. A prominent study shows that making happiness a personal goal will actually stand in the way of your achieving it. The researchers found that women who valued happiness more reported being less happy and more depressed than women who didn#39;t place much importance on the goal.呃,既然已经把快乐的秘诀都告诉你了,我们再来将你的梦想打破。有个著名的研究表明,将追求快乐作为个人目标只会阻碍你获得快乐。研究人员发现,重视快乐的女性却很少能感受快乐,甚至会比那些不太在意追求快乐的人更忧郁。;Wanting to be happy can make you less happy,; said study researcher Iris Mauss. ;If you explicitly and purposely focus on happiness, that appears to have a self-defeating quality.;研究者艾丽斯·莫斯表示:“一味追求快乐反而会让你变得不快乐。如果你过于明确‘追求快乐#39;这一目标,最终只会尝到挫败的滋味。”So if you really want to be happy, try forgetting about it.所以说,如果你真想变得快乐,就忘了这事吧。 /201603/433903。

  • Liao Dynasty辽朝Culture文化Culturally, the Liao achieved mainly in astronomy, the calendar, medicine and architecture.文化上,辽朝在天文学、历法、医药和建筑学方面取得了主要成就。Not only did the Liao calendar keep the best parts of the Central Plain Han calendar,辽历不仅是中原地区汉历的重要组成部分,but also retained some of the special traits of the Khitan people.还保留了契丹人的一些特点。Important achievements were made in acupuncture, pulse-feeling diagnosis, gynecology, obstetrics and preservation of corpses.针灸、号脉问诊、妇科、产科和尸体的保存也取得了重要的成就。The Book of Acupuncture and Pulse-Feeling, written by a celebrated doctor named Zhi Lugu, enjoyed wide popularity at the time.由直鲁古编写的《针灸书》和《脉诀》广受欢迎。The Liao architecture, influenced by the Tang style and accommodating the Khitan customs, achieved its own unique style.辽朝的建筑,一方面受到唐朝风格的影响另一方面又与契丹的风俗相配,形成了自己独特的风格。The Liao honored Confucian philosophy but the rulers patronized Chinese Buddhism.辽尊崇儒家学说,但是执政者却资助中国的佛学。The Khitan dialect and the Han language were the main languages used by the Liao.契丹语和汉语是契丹人的主要语言。 /201511/406487。
  • DANIEL LIBESKIND丹尼尔·里伯斯金(Daniel Libeskind)ON THE TOUR MONTPARNASSE, PARIS巴黎蒙帕纳斯大楼“It’s legendary for being the most hated building in Paris. I want to defend it not because it’s a particularly beautiful tower, but because of the idea it represents. Parisians panicked when they saw it, and when they abandoned the tower they also abandoned the idea of a high-density sustainable city. Because they exiled all future highrises to some far neighborhood like La Défense, they were segregating growth. Parisians reacted aesthetically, as they are wont to do, but they failed to consider the consequences of what it means to be a vital, living city versus a museum city. People sentimentalize their notions of the city, but with the carbon footprint, the waste of resources, our shrinking capacity, we have no choice but to build good high-rise buildings that are affordable. It’s not by coincidence that people are going to London now not just for work but for the available space. No young company can afford Paris. Maybe Tour Montparnasse is not a work of genius, but it signified a notion of what the city of the future will have to be.”“它是出了名了巴黎最遭恨建筑。我之所以想为它辩护,不是因为它是个分外漂亮的大厦,而是因为它所代表的理念。被它吓懵了,但当他们抛弃这座大厦时,他们也抛弃了高密度可持续城市的观念。他们把所有的天大楼都驱逐到拉德芳斯之类的偏远城区,这是要决绝于发展。做出了一种审美反应,他们一直是这样,但他们没有考虑过,要成为一个有生气、有活力的城市,而不是物馆城市,需要付出怎样的代价。人对城市的看法是情绪化的,但由于碳足迹、资源浪费和生产力的缩减,我们别无选择,必须去建造物美价廉的高楼大厦。现在,人们纷纷涌向伦敦,这并非偶然,他们不仅为了工作,也为了更多的空间。现在,年轻的企业没法承担在巴黎的开销。蒙帕纳斯大楼也许不是天才之作,但它象征着一个观念,就是未来的城市只能是这样。” /201511/412013。
  • Is #39;streetwear#39; a racist term?“街头饰”是带有种族歧视的词汇吗?At the start of the millennium the New York Times compiled a list of overused fashion adjectives. “Geek-chic”, “mash-up” and “fashionista” were included. An updated list for 2016 might include “streetwear”.在2000年初,纽约时报编辑整理了一份被过度使用的时尚形容词清单。“潮”,“混搭”,和“时尚达人”都包括在其中。2016年的升级版清单或许会新增“街头饰”这个词。The latter term has troubling connotations for designers such as Nasir Mazhar who suggested that “streetwear” was a racially coded term. He told Dazed: “The minute people see black or non-white models, they think it’s streetwear.”街头饰”一词带有隐晦性色,比如设计师Nasir Mazhar认为:“街头饰”是一个带有种族歧视的词汇。他告诉Dazed杂志:“当人们看到黑人或非白人模特时,他们认为那就是街头饰。”Appropriately, for such a linguistically floppy term, its origins are dreamy and sun-kissed. “Streetwear” grew out of the US surf and skate culture of the 1960s and 70s. It later came to encompass comfortable clothes such as T-shirts and baggy jeans. In the UK, say “streetwear” and people think of joggers, caps and hoodies. Low-priced, soft-to-the-touch comfy wear that nods to hip-hop. They don’t think of haute couture. In that sense, Mazhar tells me, it’s an odd fit with what he does.其实,这样一个慵懒性十足的词汇,其起源也相当地梦幻。“街头饰”来源于美国20世纪六七十年代的冲浪和滑板文化。此后,“街头饰”逐渐推出T恤和牛仔裤等休闲饰。在英国,“街头饰”令人联想到慢跑者,工人和小混混,是价格低廉,手感柔软,让人随嘻哈音乐点头的舒适衣。人们不会想到高级女式时装。Mazhar告诉我,由此来看,他所做的是一种怪异的饰。“I’ve always associated the term with brands that mainly do T-shirts and sweatshirts,” he says. “They are not full-on fashion brands. So, in that sense, it’s belittling.” For him, it’s about feeling misunderstood by the fashion pack. “When people describe my collection using that term, I feel like they don’t get what I’m doing.”“我总是把这个词和主打T恤和运动衫的品牌联系在一起,”他说,“他们不是紧随潮流的品牌。所以从这个层面上,它被轻视了。”对他来说,这就像是被潮流误解了:“当人们用这个词来形容我的作品,我感到他们并未真的了解我做的东西。”It’s a fair point when you consider that Mazhar’s most recent collection was inventive, surreal and contained absolutely no T-shirts whatsoever. His clothes are a celebration of opposites: tracksuits and tailored pieces, formal jackets, rave tops and denim wear. But instead of the focus being on these different aspects, he is seen as an urban streetwear designer. “I don’t think people know how to talk about the looks or shapes I use. I’m not saying the clothes are masterpieces, but people’s reference points were really basic.”如果你认为Mazhar最近的作品很有创造力,超现实主义且没有包含任何T恤这样的元素,那么也是情有可原的。他的衣是对立面的集合:运动衣裤和定制衣,正式的夹克,上等的衣和粗棉布衣。但人们却并未关注这些方面,只是把他视为一名街头饰的设计师。“我觉得人们不知该如何我所设计的衣的款式和版型。我并不是说这些衣是什么杰作,但人们提及的角度确实都太浅显了。”Mazhar says he is always asked about the music in his shows, and the diversity of his models, but never the artistry behind his clothes. It echoes something Daryoush Haj-Najafi, senior editor of Complex UK, asks: “Why, when Raf Simons designs a trainer, is it art, and when Kanye West does it, it’s a joke?”Mazhar说他常被问及自己秀场的音乐和各种各样的模特,而不是衣背后的艺术。正好应了Complex UK的高级编辑Daryoush Haj-Najafi说的那句话:“为什么同一款跑鞋,Raf Simons设计出来是艺术,而Kanye West设计出来就是笑话?”译文属原创,,不得转载 /201603/430194。
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