首页>要闻>天下           天下         

      

长沙/星沙做鞘膜积液手术多少钱服务社区

2018年02月26日 09:33:35 | 作者:医苑健康 | 来源:新华社
Oh,uncle Bert. You#39;ve grown so much since the last time I saw you!哦,伯特叔叔。自从我最后一次见你,你已经长这么高了!What kids should say!孩子应该说什么!!! /201607/452821It#39;s common for older people to say they have trouble sleeping.老年人说自己睡眠不佳是很常见的事。There seem to be two main difficulties: falling asleep at the start of the night and then waking up too early in the morning – yet finding it impossible to get back to sleep.看起来问题主要有两方面:一是晚上入睡难,二是早晨醒的太早,而且无法重新入睡。In some cases, the discomfort caused by a medical condition exacerbates sleep difficulties, but many find that even without the disturbance of physical symptoms, sleep still eludes them for at least part of the night.在一些情况下,某些疾病加剧了他们的睡眠障碍,但是很多人在没有身体不适的情况下,晚上也无法得到充分睡眠。In a new study from Russia, 130 people went to a laboratory one morning and then stayed there all day and overnight. Staff kept them awake for the entire time, regularly asking them to assess how sleepy they felt.在俄罗斯开展的一项最新研究中,共有130人于早上前往实验室,在那里呆了整天整夜。研究人员让他们时刻保持清醒,并定时让他们评价自己的困倦程度。These feelings of sleepiness vary throughout the day and night and in sleep deprivation experiments such as this, they are taken to reflect processes related to the body clock such as changes in body temperature at different times of day and the release of the hormone melatonin in the evening.白天和晚上的睡意各不相同。在这样的睡眠剥夺实验中,被试者会反映出与生物钟相关的身体变化,比如白天不同的体温变化和晚上的褪黑激素的分泌情况。Then all this data was analysed in relation to a sleep diary the people had kept for the previous week, in order to see how the pattern of sleepiness and slow brainwaves varied according to propensity to be morning or evening types.然后,研究人员分析了所有这些数据,并与过去一周他们的睡眠日记对照,根据早起倾向者或晚睡倾向者的不同特点,分析睡意和较慢的脑电波的分布情况。The slow-wave activity in the volunteers#39; brains was also measured several times during the day and night. They found that, once again, the older people felt sleepy at different times from the younger people and had different timings of slow-wave activity in the brain.研究人员还在白天和夜晚测量了志愿者较慢的脑电波。他们再次发现,老年人的睡意分布时间与年轻人不同,他们较慢的脑电波的出现时间也与年轻人不一样。The study#39;s author, Arcady Putilov, suggests that two mechanisms might be responsible for the decrease in sleep time. He believes that in middle age the processes underlying the oscillations of slow-wave sleep weaken, making it harder to stay asleep, and on top of that, in older age the stronger circadian rhythms weaken because changes in body temperature and the release of the hormone melatonin weaken.该研究的作者阿卡狄·普提洛夫认为,有两套机制导致睡眠时间减少。人到中年,潜在的慢波睡眠减弱,让人很难保持睡着状态。而到老年,由于体温的变化和褪黑激素的减少,较强的生物钟节奏也会减弱。 /201606/447280Have you ever found yourself staring down at an empty bowl of ice cream wondering what just happened?你是不是也遇到过这种情况:自己盯着空空如也的冰激凌杯,在想刚刚到底发生了什么?Or holding an empty bag of M and Ms?抑或傻乎乎地拎着被消灭干净的巧克力袋子?Let#39;s face it—no one consciously decides to sabotage their diet. So how is it that your best intentions can be so blindsided by...by what?面对现实吧——大家都不是有意识的要破坏自己的节食计划。那么,我们立志瘦身的初衷究竟是怎样被攻破的?又是被什么攻破的?According to stimulus-response theory, we#39;re often derailed by a kind of knee-jerk way of thinking: You see a TV commercial for a juicy bacon double cheeseburger (stimulus) and next thing you know you#39;re driving to McDonald#39;s (response).根据刺激反应理论,我们常常会被下意识的思考方式所干扰:上一秒你在电视上看到培根双层芝士汉堡的广告(刺激),下一秒你就发现自己已经在开车去麦当劳的路上了(反应)。In order to minimize this kind of mindless eating, you need to become aware of the circumstances that leave you most susceptible to falling off the healthy food wagon.若要尽可能地控制这些无意识的贪吃行为,你需要了解哪些情境因素会使你更容易偏离健康饮食的轨道。You are particularly susceptible to knee-jerk sabotage when:在下面这些情况下,你尤其容易受下意识思考方式的影响:1. You#39;re stressed. Whether it#39;s caused by life challenges, illness, or fatigue, stress depletes you emotionally as well as physically.当你倍感压力时。生活中的挑战、疾病或劳累都会让你感到压力,而不管是哪一种都会在精神上和体力上击垮你。When you become depleted, food—especially the salty, sweet, fatty, high calorie kind—beckons you with promises of escape, sedation, and comfort. Ah!当你感到被击垮时,食物——尤其是高盐、高糖、高脂、高卡路里的食物——就在向你招手了:来吧!我能让你逃离压力,镇静放松下来!啊,如此美好!And these promises aren#39;t exaggerations. Food does offer the relief you seek—well, at least until you swallow!而且它们没说谎——食物(是的,吃进肚的食物),的确能帮我们释放压力。2. You#39;re bored. Boredom is an emotion that leaves you feeling fidgety and somewhat out of control. Your go-to comfort food not only promises the distracting pleasure of something to do, but will flood your brain with feel-good chemicals. Your restlessness is swept away by the blissful tranquility of escape.当你无聊时。无聊会让你感觉烦躁不安、难以自控。这时你便向食物索取安慰,因为它不但能让你忙活起来,分散注意力,还会让你的大脑血液中流过令人愉快的化学物质。你的焦躁不安一扫而光,心头洋溢着成功摆脱空虚的喜悦和宁静。3. You#39;re watching TV (or otherwise distracted). We are creatures of habit as well as creatures of comfort. And what#39;s more comforting—or mindless—than zoning out binge-watching your favorite TV series while digging into that bag of chips?你在看电视的时候(或者其它思想不集中的时候)。人类是追求舒适感的生物,更是享受按习惯行事的生物。想象一下,当你可以放空大脑,一边放肆地追你最爱的电视剧,一边疯狂地吃薯片,如此舒适惬意,无忧无虑,夫复何求?Mindless distraction and snacking become ritualistic habits, just like a tub of popcorn becomes a must at the movie theater.放空大脑、吃零食好像已成为一种固定的搭配,就像看电影就必须吃一桶爆米花一样。4. You#39;re depressed or anxious. Emotional struggle and stress are inseparable, leaving you feeling desperate and out of control. Destructive eating is an anesthetic to your emotional pain and discomfort.你沮丧或焦虑的时候。情绪上的困扰总是和压力相伴相生,让你感觉歇斯底里,不受控制。而大吃大喝就像麻醉剂,让你暂时忘却情绪上的痛苦和不适。The feel-good chemical dopamine is released in the brain and—at least while you#39;re eating—your emotional pain is numbed.这时,大脑会释放一种名为多巴胺的化学物质,你的情绪痛苦会被暂时麻醉——至少在你吃东西的时候是这样的。5. You#39;re in a restaurant or planning to go out to eat. This is where your mind begins to ;graze:; ;Hmm, what am I in the mood for tonight?;你在餐馆或者正打算去下馆子的时候。这时你的大脑就开始臆想了:“哎呀呀,今晚吃点什么好呢?”This is ;mind-tasting.; Once you begin to mind-taste, you#39;re aly putting in motion the physiological changes associated with actually eating those delicious foods. Mind-tasting is a surefire way to open the door to destructive eating.这就是“臆想的美味”。一旦你开始臆想美味,你就会经历真正品尝美食时才会有的心理变化。所以臆想美味必然导致大吃大喝。6. You feel your stomach growl. You haven#39;t eaten in a few hours, it#39;s almost lunch time, and your stomach growls. For many people, this sets off a small panic: ;I#39;m starving! I need to eat something right now.;你觉得肚子在叫的时候。好几个小时没吃东西了,又快到午饭饭点了,于是肚子开始叫了。而这会引起许多人的心理小恐慌:“饿死我了!必须马上吃点东西才行。”In typical knee-jerk fashion, you#39;re conditioned to jump when your stomach beckons. More often than not, it#39;s your mind, not your body, that needs to be fed.这是典型的下意识行为:肚子一叫,你就习惯性地坐不住了。但往往真正饿的不是你的肚子,而是你的大脑。7. You#39;re alone or lonely. Loneliness is a stressful state, which at times is unavoidable. We try to reduce the stress of loneliness by using food to fill the emptiness in our lives.你独自一人或倍感孤独的时候。孤独能让人感到压力,这是不可避免的。于是我们用食物来填充空虚,以此减轻随孤独而来的压力。Food, quite literally, ;fills; us. And when you#39;re feeling empty and alone, being full can be quite comforting.直白的说,食物就是能使我们充实的“实物”。如果你觉得空虚寂寞,吃饱肚子能让你舒许多。8. You see or smell a nostalgic comfort food. The sight or aroma of a childhood comfort food can release in the brain the same chemicals involved in tasting these foods (mind-tasting again).当你看到或闻到能让你怀旧的食物时。当你看到或闻到童年吃过的食物时,大脑会释放出和真正品尝这些食物时相同的化学物质(又是臆想美味)。It#39;s why fast food restaurants have pictures on their s. You stand there mind-tasting each possibility until you settle on the one choice that seems to offer the most satisfaction.这也解释了为什么快餐店会在菜单上附图片。你只需站在那里就能臆想出每一道菜的美味,然后就拿定主意选择了看起来最好吃的那一道。9. You#39;ve had an alcoholic beverage—or three. Alcohol distorts both your physical and psychological perceptions of hunger. You probably aly know that alcohol adds calories, weakens self-discipline, and stimulates hunger.你喝了一杯酒精饮料的时候——或者三杯。酒精会使你对饥饿感产生错觉。你也许已经知道了这些事实:酒精会增加卡路里摄取量,削弱自律能力,并刺激你的饥饿感。Having a drink before or during your meal will lower your inhibitions and diminish your willpower. Save the wine for dessert.饭前或饭中喝酒会使你放下防备,削弱你的意志力。所以红酒还是留作饭后吃甜点的时候喝吧。10. You#39;re tired, you have access to junk food and it#39;s late at night. Fatigue reduces your capacity for tolerating stress. Nighttime is when things begin to wind down, you#39;ve had a hard day, and you#39;re hoping to reward yourself for having survived the day#39;s demands.你觉得累了,此时正值深夜,手头又有现成垃圾食品的时候。劳累会削弱你对压力的抵抗力。夜晚时分,万籁俱寂,你已经忙碌了一整天,此时不由得希望能犒劳犒劳自己。Or perhaps it#39;s your knee-jerk, ritualistic need for a ;night cap; before retiring. It#39;s easy to fall prey to “tomorrow is another day” thinking and go for the brownies and glass of milk.又或者,这只是你下意识的想法,你其实只是想在睡前再例行公事来点夜宵而已。你轻而易举地说自己,随便今天怎么样了,反正“明天又是新的一天”,然后就兴致勃勃地跑去拿巧克力糕饼和牛奶了。 /201603/434276

The broad basis of life on Earth iscarbon-based and requires water. Carbon is much more versatile as a buildingblock for complex molecules than, say, silicon, the favourite element forspeculations about alternative alien biochemistries.地球上生命的广泛基础是基于碳和需要水。碳作为复杂分子的构建元素,比诸如硅这样在推测另类的外星人生化组成时最受青睐的元素要全能得多。As well as sugars, life on Earth needed aminoacids, the building blocks of proteins. But we know that these can be formed inouter space too, because they have been found in ;primitive;meteorites. They might be made from some variation of a chemical reactioncalled the Strecker synthesis, after the 19th-Century German chemist whodiscovered it. The reaction involves simple organic molecules called ketones oraldehydes, which combine with hydrogen cyanide and ammonia. Alternatively,light-driven chemistry triggered by ultraviolet light will do the job.和需要糖一样,地球上的生命也需要蛋白质的构成元素氨基酸。但我们知道这些也可在外太空形成,因为在“原始的”陨石中发现过它们。它们可以从被称为“斯特雷克合成反应”的化学反应的一些变化中产生,这个化学反应是19世纪德国化学家斯特雷克发现的。该反应涉及简单的有机分子酮或醛,它们与氰化氢和氨结合。或者,紫外线触发的光驱动化学反应也可以做这个工作。It looks at first as though these reactionsshould not take place in deepest space, without a source of heat or light todrive them. Molecules encountering one another in frigid, dark conditions donot have enough energy to get a chemical reaction started.乍一看,这些反应似乎不会在幽深的没有热源或光源驱动的太空发生。分子在寒冷黑暗的环境中相遇并没有足够的能量引发化学反应。However, in the 1970s the Soviet chemistVitali Goldanski showed otherwise. Some chemicals could react even when chilledto just four degrees above absolute zero. They just needed a bit of help fromhigh-energy radiation such as gamma-rays or electron beams –like thecosmic rays that whizz through all of space.然而,20世纪70年代,苏联化学家戈尔丹斯基明情况并非如此。一些化学物质甚至被冷却至只有绝对零度以上4度时,也能发生反应。它们只需要伽玛射线或电子束等高能射线助一臂之力- 这些射线就像嗖嗖穿过太空的宇宙射线。Under these conditions, Goldanski foundthat the carbon-based molecule formaldehyde, which is common in molecularclouds, could link up into polymer chains several hundred molecules long.戈尔丹斯基发现,在这种情况下,常见于分子云中的碳基分子甲醛可联结成长达几百个分子的聚合物链。Goldanski believed that such space-basedreactions might have helped the molecular building blocks of life assemble fromsimple ingredients like hydrogen cyanide, ammonia and water.戈尔丹斯基认为,这种以太空环境为基础的反应或可帮助生命的构建分子从氰化氢,氨和水等简单成分中形成。But it is far more difficult to coax suchmolecules to combine into more complex forms. Ultraviolet and other forms ofradiation can induce reactions. But they are just as likely to smash moleculesas they are to form them. Potential biomolecules – progenitors of proteins andRNA, say –would be broken apart faster than they were being produced.但诱使这类分子结合成更复杂的形态要困难得多。紫外线和其它形式的射线可诱导产生化学反应。但它们打碎分子的几率和形成分子的几率一样高。潜在的生物分子- 比如蛋白质和核糖核酸的祖细胞- 被分解比被制造出来要快得多。Ultimately the question is whether othercompletely alien environments would give rise to self-replicating chemicalsystems that can evolve.最终,问题在于其它完全陌生的环境是否会产生能够进化的自我复制的化学系统。 /201605/440203

King Kong considering something that might have changed the whole thing金刚考虑一些可能会改变整体的事情WAXING salon脱毛沙龙 /201607/454515

I first encountered these intriguing attitudes to sleep during my first stay in Japan in the late 1980s. At that time Japan was at the peak of what became known as the Bubble Economy, a phase of extraordinary speculative boom. Daily life was correspondingly hectic. People filled their schedules with work and leisure appointments, and had hardly any time to sleep. The lifestyle of this era is aptly summed up by a wildly popular advertising slogan of the time, extolling the benefits of an energy drink. “Can you battle through 24 hours? / Businessman! Businessman! Japanese businessman!”我第一次见识到日本人对于睡眠的这种有趣态度是在上世纪80年代末首次去日本时。当时,日本正处于泡沫经济的巅峰时期,整个社会的投机氛围泛滥,日常生活也处于高度忙碌状态。人们整天忙于工作和休闲约会,几乎连睡觉的时间都挤不出来。当时最为流行的一条能量饮料广告语恰如其分地反映了这段时期人们的生活方式:“谁能24小时战斗不停?商人!商人!日本商人!”Many voiced the complaint: “We Japanese are crazy to work so much!” But in these complaints one detected a sense of pride at being more diligent and therefore morally superior to the rest of humanity. Yet, at the same time, I observed countless people dozing on underground trains during my daily commute. Some even slept while standing up, and no one appeared to be at all surprised by this.许多人抱怨说:“我们日本人工作太辛苦,简直太疯狂!”但是在这种抱怨声中也不乏一丝自豪:勤勉苦干的日本人由此拥有了对其他民族的某种道德优越感。然而,与此同时,我每天在地铁车厢里都会发现有无数的日本人在打盹,有些人甚至站着就呼呼大睡,没人会对此大惊小怪。I found this attitude contradictory. The positive image of the worker bee, who cuts back on sleep at night and frowns on sleeping late in the morning, seemed to be accompanied by an extensive tolerance of so-called ‘inemuri’ – napping on public transportation and during work meetings, classes and lectures. Women, men and children apparently had little inhibition about falling asleep when and wherever they felt like doing so.我发现这种态度自相矛盾。这些晚上很晚才睡,却在早晨因为缺乏睡眠而哈欠连天的“工蜂”在日本属于正面形象,而社会对于“小憩”(inemuri,日本汉字为“居眠”)——指在公共交通工具上、在工作会议、课堂和讲座期间打盹的行为却普遍持宽容态度。无论是妇女、男人还是儿童,都能很自然地随时随地酣然入睡。If sleeping in a bed or a futon was considered a sign of laziness, then why wasn’t sleeping during an event or even at work considered an even greater expression of indolence? What sense did it make to allow children to stay up late at night to study if it meant that they would fall asleep during class the next day? These impressions and apparent contradictions led to my more intensive involvement with the theme of sleep for my PhD project several years later.如果人们认为在床上或榻榻米上睡觉属于懒惰行为的话,那么为什么不认为在会议上甚至工作时打瞌睡是更严重的懒散行为?为什么要让儿童学习到深夜,却在第二天的课堂上补觉?带着对这种矛盾意识的疑惑,在几年后攻读士学位时,我选择了睡眠的文化含义作为课题做了深入研究。Initially, I had to fight against prejudice as people were reluctant to consider sleep a serious topic for academic enquiry. Of course, it was precisely such attitudes that had originally caught my attention. Sleep can be loaded with a variety of meanings and ideologies; analysing sleep arrangements and the discourse on it reveals attitudes and values embedded in the contexts in which sleep is organised and discussed. In my experience, it is the everyday and seemingly natural events upon which people generally do not reflect that reveal essential structures and values of a society.研究刚开始的时候,人们认为睡眠本身不是一个严肃的学术研究课题,对此我做了很大努力才打消他们的这种偏见。当然,当初吸引我的正是这种消极态度。睡眠本身承载着多种含义和意识形态要素,对睡眠和与之有关的话语进行分析可以揭示出深植在睡眠组织和讨论语境下的价值观。我发现,大多数人不认为睡眠这种日常而自然的现象会反映出一个社会的核心结构和价值观。We often assume that our ancestors went to bed ‘naturally’ when darkness fell and rose with the Sun. However, sleep times have never been such a simple matter, whether in Japan or elsewhere. Even before the invention of electric light, the documentary evidence shows that people were scolded for staying up late at night for chatting, drinking and other forms of pleasure. However, scholars – particularly young samurai – were considered highly virtuous if they interrupted their sleep to study, even though this practice may not have been very efficient as it required oil for their lamps and often resulted in them falling asleep during lectures.我们往往认为人类的祖先遵循日出而作、日落而息的规律生活。但实际上,不管在日本还是在其他地区,人们的睡眠习惯从来就没有如此简单过。即便在电灯发明前,当时的文献记录就曾记载了很多人因为深夜沉湎于聊天、喝酒和其他享乐,迟迟不睡而遭到责备的故事。但人们普遍认为有文化的人——尤其是年轻的武士——挑灯夜读是一种好的品德,即使这种学习习惯可能效率并不高,因为这不仅会耗费更多的油来点燃油灯,而且还会在第二天上课时打盹。Napping is hardly ever discussed in historical sources and seems to have been widely taken for granted. Falling asleep in public tends to be only mentioned when the nap is the source for a funny anecdote, such as when someone joins in with the wrong song at a ceremony, unaware that they have slept through most of it. People also seem to have enjoyed playing tricks on friends who had involuntarily dozed off. 历史文献里几乎从未提起过打瞌睡,好像当时的人们对此都习以为常。唯一的例外是在公共场所打瞌睡引起某些趣闻轶事的情形,比如,某人在一场典礼上加入合唱时唱错了歌曲,因为他们在典礼的大部分时间内都在睡觉。另外,人们还喜欢拿不知不觉打瞌睡的朋友开玩笑。Early rising, on the other hand, has clearly been promoted as a virtue, at least since the introduction of Confucianism and Buddhism. In antiquity, sources show a special concern for the work schedule of civil servants, but from the Middle Ages onwards, early rising was applied to all strata of society, with “going to bed late and rising early” used as a metaphor to describe a virtuous person.另一方面,清晨早起被誉为是一种美德,至少从儒家和佛家被引入日本后是如此。古代文献中有人们对于公务员工作时间表感到担忧的记载,但从中世纪以来,早起就已经成为社会各阶层的共同喜好,“晚睡早起”成为有文化品德的人的象征。Another interesting issue is co-sleeping. In Britain, parents are often told they should provide even babies with a separate room so that they can learn to be independent sleepers, thus establishing a regular sleep schedule. In Japan, by contrast, parents and doctors are adamant that co-sleeping with children until they are at least at school age will reassure them and help them develop into independent and socially stable adults.另一个有趣的问题是父母是否与子女共寝。英国的习惯是,父母让儿童在单独卧室里独睡,即便在婴儿时期也是如此。这样做的目的是让儿童学会独立入睡,并建立起有规律的入睡习惯。然而,日本父母和医生却坚决主张父母与子女共寝直到学龄。他们的理由是:这样做不仅会消除儿童的紧张情绪,还有助于塑造独立和适应社会的成人人格。Maybe this cultural norm helps Japanese people to sleep in the presence of others, even when they are adults – many Japanese say they often sleep better in company than alone. Such an effect could be observed in spring 2011 after the huge tsunami disaster destroyed several coastal towns. Survivors had to stay in evacuation shelters, where dozens or even hundreds of people shared the same living and sleeping space. Notwithstanding various conflicts and problems, survivors described how sharing a communal sleeping space provided some comfort and helped them to relax and regain their sleep rhythm.可能正是这种文化习惯才让日本成年人在他人面前毫无心理负担地酣然入睡。许多日本人说,他们在有人陪伴时睡眠质量比独处时更好。2011年春天,威力巨大的海啸袭击了日本几座沿海城市。灾难发生后,幸存者们挤住在避难所里,数十甚至数百人共处同一片屋檐下。虽然人和人之间也发生了某些冲突和问题,但幸存者们却说,和这么多人一起睡觉让他们更为放松,更易入眠,并且重新找回了健康的睡眠节律。However, this experience of sleeping in the presence of others as children is not sufficient on its own to explain the widesp tolerance of inemuri, especially at school and in the workplace. After some years of investigating this subject, I finally realised that on a certain level, inemuri is not considered sleep at all. Not only is it seen as being different from night-time sleep in bed, it is also viewed differently from taking an afternoon nap or power nap.然而,婴儿时期与他人共寝的经验无法解释日本人对于小憩,尤其是对学校和工作场所小憩的的广泛宽容态度。经过为期数年的调查,我终于意识到:在某种程度上,日本人根本不把小憩和睡眠同等对待。在日本人心目中,小憩不仅和夜间床上睡眠毫不相干,与睡午觉也有所区别。How can we make sense of this? The clue lies in the term itself, which is composed of two Chinese characters. ‘I’ which means ‘to be present’ in a situation that is not sleep and ‘nemuri’ which means ‘sleep’. Erving Goffman’s concept of “involvement within social situations” is useful I think in helping us grasp the social significance of inemuri and the rules surrounding it. Through our body language and verbal expressions we are involved to some extent in every situation in which we are present. We do, however, have the capacity to divide our attention into dominant and subordinate involvement.原因何在?首先要从它的文字组成来分析。“小憩”的日语汉字写法是由两个汉字组成:“居”和“眠”。“居”指“在场”,“眠”指“睡眠”。我认为,埃文#8226;古夫曼(Erving Goffman)提出的“融入社会环境”概念能够帮助我们了解小憩的社会意义以及与其有关的规则。通过身体语言和口头表达,我们在某种程度上介入到所处的环境之中。然而,我们可以把自己的注意力分割为数个可配的底层介入活动。In this context, inemuri can be seen as a subordinate involvement which can be indulged in as long as it does not disturb the social situation at hand – similar to daydreaming. Even though the sleeper might be mentally ‘away’, they have to be able to return to the social situation at hand when active contribution is required. They also have to maintain the impression of fitting in with the dominant involvement by means of body posture, body language, dress code and the like.在这种情况下,小憩可看做是一种底层介入,在没有打扰所处的社会环境的情况下,不必对此大惊小怪——这点和白日梦很类似。尽管小憩者此时可能已经精神溜号,但在需要主动参与时,他们就会立刻返回到所处的社会环境中来。他们还可以通过身体姿态、身体语言、衣着符号等方式保持符合可配介入活动的印象。Inemuri in the workplace is a case in point. In principle, attentiveness and active participation are expected at work, and falling asleep creates the impression of lethargy and that a person is shirking their duties. However, it is also viewed as the result of work-related exhaustion. It may be excused by the fact that meetings are usually long and often involve simply listening to the chair’s reports. The effort made to attend is often valued more than what is actually achieved. As one informant told me: “We Japanese have the Olympic spirit – participating is what counts.”工作场所中的小憩就是一个很好的例。原则上,工作场所要求员工态度专注、主动参与,在工作场所睡觉则会给人留下性情倦怠、逃避责任的印象。然而,打瞌睡也会是勤奋工作的产物。在要求听众被动聆听主席台上冗长报告的会议上,听众非常容易入睡。来参加会议本身比会议能取得什么成果更加重要。一位消息人士告诉我:“我们日本人都有奥林匹克精神——重在参与。”Diligence, which is expressed by working long hours and giving one’s all, is highly valued as a positive moral trait in Japan. Someone who makes the effort to participate in a meeting despite being exhausted or ill demonstrates diligence, a sense of responsibility and their willingness to make a sacrifice. By overcoming physical weaknesses and needs, a person becomes morally and mentally fortified and is filled with positive energy. Such a person is considered reliable and will be promoted. If, in the end, they succumb to sleep due to exhaustion or a cold or another health problem, they can be excused and an “attack of the sleep demon” can be held responsible. 日本人认为,勤奋是指长时间尽全力工作,这是一种得到高度推崇的美德。在筋疲力尽或者疾病缠身的情况下仍然参加会议的人表现出的是勤奋态度、责任感和自我牺牲精神。通过克身体不适和需求,一个人就能在道德和精神意义上变得更加强大,并且充满正能量。人们会觉得这类人忠诚可靠,应当晋升。如果他们因为过度劳累、患上感冒或其他疾病而酣然入睡,人们会原谅他们,并且打趣地说,这是因为“睡魔”袭来的缘故。Moreover, modesty is also a highly valued virtue. Therefore, it is not possible to boast about one’s own diligence – and this creates the need for subtle methods to achieve social recognition. Since tiredness and illness are often viewed as the result of previous work efforts and diligence, inemuri – or even feigning inemuri by closing one’s eyes – can be employed as a sign that a person has been working hard but still has the strength and moral virtue necessary to keep themselves and their feelings under control.另外,日本社会也高度崇尚谦虚这项美德。因此,没人会四处吹嘘他工作勤奋–此时就需要采取某种巧妙的方法获得社会认可。由于劳累和疾病往往是由于过去的努力工作所致,这时可以小憩一番–甚至闭上眼睛假装小憩–从而表明该人一直在努力工作,虽然他现在正在打瞌睡,但却仍然具有控制自身及情绪的力量和道德。Thus, the Japanese habit of inemuri does not necessarily reveal a tendency towards laziness. Instead, it is an informal feature of Japanese social life intended to ensure the performance of regular duties by offering a way of being temporarily ‘away’ within these duties. And so it is clear: the Japanese don’t sleep. They don’t nap. They do inemuri. It could not be more different.因此,日本人的小憩习惯不能和懒惰划等号。恰恰相反,它是日本社会生活中的一种非正式行动,目的在于通过暂时“离开”职责而确保日常职责得以履行。很明显:日本人不是在睡觉,也不是在打瞌睡,他们正在小憩。这三者之间的区别可大了去了。 /201606/449653

  • 放心信息星沙哪里能治男性不育
  • 星沙县妇科专家
  • 星沙白带常规检查要多少钱
  • 城市健康长沙/华夏医院无痛人流未成年可以去嘛
  • 飞度云咨询长沙/星沙切割包皮手术要多少钱
  • 湘雅医院割包皮
  • 最新大夫星沙看早泄最好的医院
  • 星沙治痔疮偏方绝招不忌辣
  • 长沙/星沙哪家医院人流术比较好
  • 国际分享长沙/星沙谁家医院做人流不贵
  • 长沙/星沙妇科好的医院家庭医生大夫
  • 湖南中医药大学第一附属医院看前列腺炎好吗
  • 长沙/县妇幼保健院治疗妇科多少钱美丽指南星沙华夏医院前列腺
  • 长沙/华夏男科医院怎么样
  • 长沙/星沙尿道炎治疗要多少钱光明健康长沙/星沙韩式包皮包茎手术
  • 长沙/县星沙医院人工流产多少钱中华晚报
  • 华龙网长沙/星沙包皮手术怎么样
  • 中南大学湘雅医院联系电话
  • 长沙/星沙哪家医院可以治淋病
  • 长沙/星沙哪里无痛人流价格低
  • 长沙/星沙人流时能否上环久久典范长沙/市星沙治疗宫颈炎多少钱
  • 星沙八医院怀孕人流的时间中华大全
  • 长沙/县妇幼保健院男科专家
  • 放心咨询长沙/星沙无痛人流大医院
  • 星沙县人民医院人流什么时间
  • 长沙/华夏医院泌尿外科知道分享
  • 爱对话星沙八医院看做人流哪里好
  • 长沙/市妇幼保健院治疗内分泌多少钱
  • 星沙无痛人流哪家医院便宜
  • 长沙/星沙人流的费用
  • 相关阅读
  • 明天开始一年内赚的盆满钵满穷的只剩钱的生肖
  • 百倍的热情千遍的呵护万分的用心品鉴华菱星马运煤专线上
  • 洛阳城市建设勘察设计院有限公司招聘信息
  • 阿梅你真的学了中医比较擅长是哪一方面的?你是在乡下学的吗
  • 深圳互金协会发布通知严禁成员单位开展首付贷等违规业务
  • 乌兰察布市召开十三五人才发展规划座谈会
  • 《梦想的声音》本周逆势上扬田馥甄浓妆惊艳颠覆
  • 特朗普要废了耶伦?华尔街的小心脏都要跳出来了!
  • 车市之星专访上海锦俊总经理尤悦梅
  • 地铁时代常青城暂无房源可售(图)
  • 编辑:知道面诊

    关键词:长沙/星沙做鞘膜积液手术多少钱

    更多

    更多