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长沙市中心医院预约挂号长沙星沙妇科整形哪家好Science and technology科学技术Drug research药物研究Toxic medicine毒类药品Snake venom is being used to cure, rather than kill蛇毒用于治病,不是杀伤THERE are no poisons, only poisonous doses.Thus did Paracelsus, the greatest of the alchemists, encapsulate an important piece of medical wisdom.曾经最伟大的炼金术士帕拉塞尔苏斯创立的一条重要的医学名言如是说:没有毒药,只有毒剂。In fact, that is only half the story,然而,这只说对了一半。for many materials which are toxic at high doses, when used sparingly and directed at specific targets, are not merely harmless, but actually beneficial.很多物质量大了以后就有毒性了。当计量后专用时,不仅无害,而且有益。Plant poisons, from digitalis to curare, are routinely employed as drugs.一些植物的汁液,都可用作常规药物。And now it is the turn of animal toxins, as researchers examine venoms secreted by snakes and lizards, to see if they, too, might be turned into treatments.而现在研究人员转向研究动物的毒液―蛇和蜥蜴分泌的毒汁,检验它们是否可用来治病。Snake venom, collected from farmed reptiles, has been used to make antisera for snake bites for decades by injecting it into mammals such as sheep and horses, and collecting the antibodies thus generated.圈养的蛇可收集蛇毒。几十年来,人们一直用蛇毒制作抗血清4治疗毒蛇咬伤,还把它注射到绵羊和马这样哺乳动物体内,收取抗体。Making drugs from the venom itself, however, is a fairly new idea.虽然蛇毒制药是一个全新的概念,But that is what Stefan Hailey of the University of Delaware and his colleagues hope to do.但特拉华州大学的史蒂芬?哈利和他们同事希望如此。In a paper published recently by Toxicon, they report how a protein called eristostatin, which can be extracted from the venom of the Asian sand viper, helps peoples immune systems fight malignant melanoma.最近,他们发表了一篇名为《毒素》的论文,介绍了从亚洲沙蝰的毒液中可以提取蛇毒蛋白质,这种蛋白质可激发人类免疫系统对抗恶性肿瘤。Previous studies have shown that eristostatin stops melanoma cells colonising the liver and lungs in mice.先前的研究发现蛇毒蛋白质能阻止黑色瘤细胞5在肝脏和肺的扩散。Dr Hailey is trying to work out how this happens.哈利正解密这一过程。Eristostatins day job is to stop victims blood clotting and thus plugging up damaged blood vessels after a bite.蛇毒蛋白质的功效是人被蛇咬伤后防止血液凝固堵塞血管。By increasing blood loss, it weakens victims.受伤者失血过多,逐渐虚弱。The molecule does this by glomming onto cellular fragments called platelets that are crucial to the process of clotting, thus disabling them.抗凝分子能抑制血小板这种在血凝过程中起关键作用的细胞碎片,使其失效。Dr Hailey hopes to make use of this tendency to encourage the immune system to attack melanoma cells.哈利希望利用这种性质趋向激发免疫系统对抗黑色瘤细胞。His idea requires eristostatin to be as attracted to cancer cells as it is to platelets.他的理论需要蛇毒蛋白像抑制血小板那样吸引癌细胞。Two observations suggest it could be.两项研究结果实了其可能性。One is that eristostatin has a particular affinity for melanoma cells, which presumably have a protein on their surfaces that is similar to the one which attracts eristostatin to platelets.一是蛇毒蛋白与黑素瘤细胞有一定的亲和性,黑素瘤细胞表面可能有一种蛋白质,类似于让蛇毒蛋白吸附血小板的蛋白。The other observation is that when eristostatin is attached to a cells surface it attracts the attention of T-lymphocytes.另一项是蛇毒蛋白附于细胞表面时,可吸引T形淋巴细胞6。These are immune-system cells whose job is to kill other body cells that have been infected with viruses, or which have turned cancerous.这些免疫系统细胞能吞噬被细菌感染的细胞或是癌化细胞。If melanoma cells could, in this way, be made especially attractive to T-lymphocytes, that might clear away the tumour completely.假如能让黑素瘤细胞像这样吸引T形淋巴细胞,那么就可能完全消除肿瘤。Dr Hailey and his colleagues used a technique called atomic-force microscopy to study the interactions between melanoma cancer cells and eristostatin.哈利和其同事用原子力显微镜7技术研究黑素次瘤癌细胞与蛇毒蛋白的相互作用。This technique allows the force required to pull the two apart to be measured precisely, to see whether there is a genuine attraction—which he found that there is.这种技术可以调节原子力把两者分开进行精确测量,看看是否真的存在吸引―经他实是存在的。If eristostatin does prove an effective means to treat cancer, it will join a growing stable of medicines derived from reptile toxins.假如蛇毒蛋白真能有效地治疗癌症,就会把它归到不断扩大的蛇毒提取药类里。Tirofiban, for instance, is a modified version of another anticoagulant—in this case from the venom of the African saw-scaled viper.例如,欣维宁是从锯鳞8的毒液中提取的,是改良了的抗凝剂。It is given to people with angina, and also to those who have had heart attacks.欣维宁针对心绞痛患者以及心脏病患者。依泰德森是人工的唾液素4。Exenatide is the synthetic form of a hormone called exendin-4 that occurs naturally in the saliva of the Gila monster, a venomous North American lizard.自然状态下,存在于北美一种毒蜥―希拉毒蜥的唾液中。It works as a treatment for type-2 diabetes because it increases insulin production in those whose blood-sugar levels are high.唾液素4可用于治疗2型糖尿病10,因为它能增高高血糖患者体内的胰岛素含量。And captopril, a blood-vessel-relaxing agent widely used to treat hypertension, is based on teprotide, from Brazilian arrowhead vipers, which helps the other toxins in the venom circulate quickly, and thus reach their targets rapidly.卡托普利11―血管放松剂,广泛用于治疗高血压。它由替普罗肽组成,从巴西箭头毒蛇12提取,能加速毒液中毒素循环,迅速到达患处。The year of the snake蛇年There are other venom-based drugs in the pipeline, too.还有其它蛇毒提取药物在研发。Crotoxin, a protein from the South American rattlesnake, though not yet approved for use, may one day be employed to treat cancers.响尾蛇蛋白是从南美响尾蛇中提取的一种蛋白质,虽然还没有实临床效果,但有一天会用来治疗癌症。Crotoxin seems particularly attracted to cancer cells.响尾蛇蛋白表面看来特别能吸引癌细胞。One portion of the molecule recognises a protein on the cells membrane, and links to it.响尾蛇蛋白分子的一部分能识别细胞膜,并依附其上。The other portion damages the membrane, triggering a mechanism called apoptosis which causes the cell to kill itself.另一部分能破坏细胞膜,产生一种让细胞死亡13的机制。Celtic Biotech, based in Dublin, is running a series of tests using this molecule on cancer patients at the Georges Pompidou European Hospital in Paris.位于都柏林的凯尔特生物技术人员正进行一系列的实验,用这种分子来治疗巴黎皮蓬杜欧洲医院的癌症患者。This year, Celtic plans to try it on people with several different sorts of cancer, since the firms researchers believe it should be effective on all solid tumours.今年他们计划对患有不同种癌症的患者进行治疗,因为公司的研究人员相信治疗固体肿瘤很有效果。If those trials are successful, though, they then plan to concentrate on lung cancer, the largest market.假如成功,他们就会专攻肺癌的治疗。Perhaps the most astonishing toxin-derived drug of all, however, is hannalgesin, which is made from king-cobra venom.这是从眼镜蛇王毒素中提取,可能是蛇毒提取药中最疗效最神奇的。Kini Manjunatha of the National University of Singapore is developing this substance as a pain-relieving agent.新加坡国大的齐尼教授正把这种物质研发成镇痛剂。He claims it is between 20 and 200 times more effective than morphine.他说作用是吗啡的20到200 多倍不等。Moreover, unlike morphine, which is usually injected, hannalgesin can be taken by mouth.再者,Hannalgesin不像吗啡通过注射,可口。He is planning to run the first clinical trials at the end of 2013 or in early 2014.他计划于2013年底或2014年初进行首次临床试验。Venom, then, is proving to be a trove of useful molecules.经实毒素就是有用的分子的集合。At a time when drug companies are struggling to develop new products,让制药公司通过自然选择对原料进行验,研发新药。a novel source of raw materials that have been road-tested by natural selection, and merely need to be subverted from their original purposes rather than created afresh, must be welcome.这个新方法肯定受欢迎,因为不需要创新,而只是转换了药性。It is not turning base metals into gold, as Paracelsus and his kind once attempted.这个过程并不是像帕拉塞尔苏斯这样的术士们把贱金属转换成黄金,But as a transformation of matter, it is surely a far more valuable trick.但从物质转换的角度来讲,一定是价值连成。 /201310/261923中南大学湘雅二医院前列腺炎多少钱 长沙星沙包皮过长的费用是多少

长沙华夏医院在线Business商业报道Apple in China苹果在中国Better days ahead明天会更好The tech giant can rebound from its recent misfortunes in China科技巨头将从最近在中国遇到的霉运中走出THINGS have not gone well for Apple in China of late.苹果近来在中国发展并不顺利。Earlier this year official news media orchestrated a series of attacks on the firm, following allegations that it had offered Chinese customers unsatisfactory guarantees for its products.今年早些时候,官媒策划了一系列对苹果进行责难的报道,称苹果对中国消费者所购产品的保修务令人不满。Apple ended up issuing a humiliating apology.此事以苹果耻辱性地道歉而告一段落。The Middle Kingdom is the worlds biggest market for both luxury goods and for smartphones.中国是世界上奢侈品和智能机的最大市场。That should have propelled Apples iPhones to the top of the heap.这本该将iPhone的销售推向了顶峰。But the firms market share languishes at around 8% of all handset sales, whereas Samsung commands just over a fifth of them.但是苹果所占手机市场份额只有8%左右,而三星超过了1/5。Apples fortunes are improving.苹果的运势在改善。The main reason the companys iPhones have fared poorly in China so far is that they are not offered on the inferior 3G network run by China Mobile, the countrys largest mobile operator.迄今为止苹果在中国进展缓慢,主要原因是iPhone并不持中国移动提供的较次的3G网络,而中国移动是中国最大的移动电话运营商。But the arrival of a new, whizzier network could change that. On December 4th the Chinese government authorised the countrys three main wireless-telecoms operators to go ahead with the next generation of network technology, known as 4G.但是新的更先进的网络将会改变这一状况。12月4日,中国政府授权中国三大主要无线通信运营商继续开发下一代的网络技术,即4G网络。The same day it emerged that later this month China Mobile—a state-owned giant that is also the worlds largest mobile-phone operator, with more than 700m customers—will unveil a 4G iPhone for the Chinese market.同一天,中国移动宣布,将在本月下旬发布面向中国市场的4G iPhone。R, an investment bank, suggests that sales of such a device could be worth 9 billion to 10 billion to Apple.投资加拿大皇家暗示该设备的销售可能为苹果公司带来90亿到100亿美元的收入。Anand Ramachandran of Barclays, another bank, is more cautious.巴克莱的安纳德?拉马钱德兰更加谨慎。He wants to see whether Apple is forced to yield to demands by China Mobile that it split the cost of its handset subsidies with customers.他想看看苹果公司是否会被迫向中国移动让步,与顾客一起分担手机补贴的费用。Investors are also wondering whether Apple will give in to pressure to return more of its giant cash mountain to shareholders through such things as share buy-backs.投资者还想知道苹果公司是否会屈于压力,通过股份回购返回更多现金给股东。Carl Icahn, a veteran shareholder activist, had been pressing the tech giant to hand back 150 billion immediately.资深股东维权人士卡尔伊坎一直逼迫这个科技巨头马上返还1.5亿美元。But this week Mr Icahn reduced his demand to 50 billion, which is still an eye-wateringly large amount of money.但是本周伊坎将要价减少到5000万美元,但这还是非常大的一笔钱。Ironically, greater success in China could lead to more friction if it puts even more cash in Apples aly overflowing coffers.讽刺的是,如果苹果公司本已过剩的现金流因此而增多,那么在中国市场的成功反而会令它面临更大的压力。 /201312/267956长沙星沙超导流产费用 Business商业报道Do-it-yourself apps自己做的应用程序Make your own Angry Birds做自己的愤怒的小鸟Homebrew apps have arrived私人制作的软件已经来临LAST year Eddie the pig took Chile by storm.去年,小猪爱迪在智利风靡。The iPhone game ePig Dash, featuring Eddie, dislodged Angry Birds to become the number-one paid game on the Chilean App Store.击败愤怒的小鸟后,以爱迪为主角的iphone游戏ePig Dash成为智利苹果应用榜上排名第一的付费游戏。By itself, the story of a cute, if flatulent, pig pushing a bunch of irate birds off the top spot is nothing unusual.就游戏本身而言,它没什么不寻常:What is odd is that the creator of ePig Dash, a conjuror and economics teacher, knew little or nothing about programming.以可爱角色为主角,小猪胀气后,将把一群愤怒的小鸟推下顶座。奇怪的是ePig Dash的作者是一名魔术师兼经济学教师,他对编程可谓知之甚少,甚至一无所知。Instead he used GameSalad, a do-it-yourself tool for app-makers.但是他使用了一款可以让程序作者自己动手做应用的工具GameSalad。DIY is hot.自己动手做很流行。In May Research in Motion, the maker of the BlackBerry, unveiled a kit that allows people with no programming skills to create a working app within minutes.五月份,黑莓的制造商RIM公司就发布了一套允许全无编程经验的人在数分钟内创造出能正常运行的应用的工具。Apple, too, has applied for a patent indicating it is also building a DIY tool for iOS, its mobile operating system.苹果公司申请的一项版权同样表明它在建造一款自家的iOS平台上用的DIY工具。And in March the Massachusetts Institute of Technology released a beta version of App Inventor, which allows even simpletons to make apps for Android phones.在三月,麻省理工学院也发布了一套测试版的应用构建器。它能以傻瓜式的方式构建安卓手机应用。Several start-ups aly offer DIY app services.有一批新成立的公司已经提供自己动手做应用的务了。Conduit, a firm which was valued at .3 billion after J.P. Morgan acquired a 7% stake for 0m earlier this year, allows people to build mobile apps themselves with a simple graphical interface.今年早些时候,根大通以1亿美元价格收购Conduit 7%的股权后,该公司的价值直奔13亿。AppMakr, a similar service, has helped to create some 10,000 apps.这家公司便可以让用户通过简单的图形界面构建移动应用。Users include individuals, small businesses and the Harvard Business Review.一家与其类似的务公司—AppMakr则已经帮助创建了约10000款应用。AppMakr also offers its users help in bringing apps up to standard before submitting them to Apples picky App Store.其用户包括个人,小型企业和《哈佛商业》。在用户要将应用提交给挑剔的苹果在线商店前,AppMakr也可帮助用户提高应用软件的水平,使其符合标准。Other services publish to Android and Windows, or bypass Apple altogether by creating web apps.其他务公司则发布安卓和Windows平台的应用程序,或者通过创建网页应用彻底绕开苹果平台。Custom-made apps can cost ,000 or more.定制的应用成本高达10000美元或更多。By contrast, DIY apps are free to create, with a subscription for continued support.相反,DIY应用则可以免费创建,还可购买后续持。Prices vary, typically from about to a month.价格一般在每月30~80美元的范围内波动。Magmito, an app-building service that targets small and medium businesses, has a plan that costs as little as a year.Magmito是一家定位中小企业的应用构建务公司。AppMakr offers a free, ad-supported service.它计划着一年仅收取50美元的费用。AppMakr则提供免费的带广告务。Small businesses and tech-savvy amateurs have been the most enthusiastic early creators of DIY apps.小企业与有卓见的科技爱好者都是早期最有热情的DIY应用创建者。But they can also be a profitable business.但为这些人提供的务也有可能是盈利的。GameSalad allows users to make 2D games for smartphones, which some choose to sell.GameSalad让用户能为智能手机制作2D游戏,其中一些人还会销售它们。According to Steve Felter, GameSalads boss, some developers even make a living designing apps on its platform.根据GameSalad经理Steve Felter的说法,一些开发者甚至在它的平台制作应用维持生计。The democratisation of technology is not without drawbacks.技术普及化也不是没有缺点。Apples App Store aly has some 550,000 apps.苹果在线商店已经拥有550000款应用。Google offers 450,000 for download on its Android operating system.谷歌也在它的安卓平台上提供450000款应用供下载。The coming deluge of apps made by amateurs will see those numbers swell.由爱好者制作的应用将如泛滥般袭来,上述数字也会增长。Not all will shine. Theres a lot of garbage on YouTube.不可能所有的都是精品。But once in a while you find a gem and everybody passes it around, says Ted Iannuzzi of Magmito.Magmito 的Ted Iannuzzi 说:YouTube里有大量的垃圾作品,但是精品从被发现到被人们广泛传播也是一瞬间的事儿。Professional app-makers may not be shaking in their boots just yet.专业的应用作者还不会感到有压力。But the clever ones, like AppMakr, are moving from creating stuff for mobile phones to creating the stuff that creates the stuff for mobile phones.可是像AppMakr这样明智的企业正从为智能手机创造应用转向为智能手机创造制造应用的应用。App-creating software could be the machine tools of the mobile world.制造应用的软件将会成为移动世界中的机床。 /201308/250745星沙不育不孕专科医院

星沙输卵管通水费用 Okay, so theres an asteroid heading toward the Earth. Whatdo we do?我们来假设,有颗小行星要撞地球啦,我们怎么办呢?Does our future really rest in the hands of Hollywood, Bruce Willis and a ragtag team ofminers like in the movie Armageddon?难道真要想好莱坞电影《世界末日》里演的似的,把未来交到布鲁斯·威利斯和他那帮乌合之众手里?Sure, we could wait until danger is imminent and then hope that a well placed nuclear explosionwould shatter or deflect the monster asteroid threatening humanity, but is this our only option?我们当然也能听任危机发展下去,在最后关头期待一枚核弹把带有毁灭威力的小行星击碎或者打偏。不过这难道是人类的唯一选择?The answer is that it depends on how big the asteroid is, how far away it is, and How much timewe have before impact?这个嘛,要看这颗小行星有多大,离地球有多远,我们有多少危机应对时间啦。Because theres lots of space debris out there, odds are that the threatening object wont be oneof the giant Earth-destroying asteroids that NASA is aly tracking, but a smaller meteoroid capable of causing regional devastation.足以毁灭地球的小行星早已上了NASA的定位追踪名单。但宇宙里到处是太空垃圾,很可能没等那些小行星威胁到地球,一些更小的流星就已足以造成地域性灾难了。With enough warning, though, we could crash a robotic spacecraft into the object and change its trajectory so that itll sail by Earth.不过,有了充足的预警,我们可以发射一些无人太空飞行器,把这些小天体撞离原定轨道。We know we have the technology for this, because NASA has aly successfully rammed a spacecraft into a comet to study the comets composition.这种技术早就有了,NASA就曾把一架飞行器撞向颗彗星,用以研究彗星的成分。There are also rare instances when space objects pass close by several years before returning on a collision course with Earth.也有一种很少见的情况:一些天体早先只是擦过近地轨道,数年后飞回来时,却可能撞上地球。Here even a tiny change in trajectory during the first pass would resultin big payoff later.天体轨道极细微的变化都可能导致今后的大灾难。In these cases, we could use a spacecrafts mass and gravitational field to nudge the space object off course without shattering it and creating potentially dangerous fragments.这种情况下,利用太空飞行器的质量和重力场,能将致命天体引偏些。用不着击碎它,这样也就不会产生可能威胁到地球安全的一堆碎片了。Obviously, early warning is key, which is why NASA has issued a grand challenge to scientists invarious disciplines, institutions and agencies to work together to uncover ways of detecting,characterizing and interacting with asteroids.显然,早期预警是关键。这也是为什么NASA给学界和各大相关机构出了个大挑战,让大家联合起来,预先测算分析和处理各种小行星的运行情况。Because when it comes to the future of the Earth,Bruce Willis can only do so much.因为一旦真的等到灾难临头,布鲁斯·威利斯可救不了人类。 /201404/287830长沙华夏女子医院人流价格星沙不孕不育症宫腹腔镜




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