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遵 义 鼻 中 隔 偏 曲 治 疗虎扑简介

2017年10月24日 11:47:18
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A question has been posed in a puzzled whisper in many of the nation’s living rooms and newsrooms ever since Donald Trump’s triumph in this month’s presidential election: What, exactly, is white nationalism?自唐纳德#8226;特朗Donald Trump)在本月的大选中获胜以来,在美国不少家庭和编辑部里都有人困惑地低声念叨一个问题:白人民族主义到底是什么?Self-proclaimed white nationalists have happily embraced Trump’s victory and, particularly, his choice of Stephen K. 自称白人民族主义者的人开心地把特朗普的胜利,尤其是他选择史蒂#8226;K#8226;班农(Stephen K. Bannon as chief strategist, as a win for their agenda. Bannon)担任首席策略师的做法当成是他们议程的胜利。A barrage of groups that fight discrimination and hate speech have, in turn, criticized Bannon’s appointment, warning that his embrace of the alt-right movement was little more than an attempt to rebrand racism and white nationalism into something palatable enough for mass consumption.反过来,大量反对歧视和仇恨言论的团体指责任命班农的决定,警告称他对另类右alt-right)运动的大力持无异于试图把种族主义和白人民族主义重新塑造成能够让人接受,可供大众消费的概念。And much of the rest of the country has been left to wonder what this unfamiliar term actually means.这些人以外的美国民众则感到莫名其妙,不知道这个少见的说法到底是什么意思。While white nationalism certainly overlaps with white supremacy and racism, many political scientists say it is a distinct phenomenon one that was a powerful but often-unseen force during the presidential election and will most likely remain a potent factor in US and European politics in coming years.白人民族主义当然与白人至上和种族主义存在共同之处,尽管如此,很多政治学家称它是一种不同的现象——在大选期间是一股强大但常常无形的力量,未来很多年里极有可能仍是美国和欧洲政治中的一个强效因素。Eric Kaufmann, a professor of politics at Birkbeck University in London, has spent years studying the ways that ethnicity intersects with politics. 伦敦大学伯克贝克学院的政治学教授埃里#8226;考夫Eric Kaufmann)潜心数年,研究族群渊源与政治的相互影响。While most researchers in that field focus on ethnic minorities, Kaufmann does the opposite: He studies the behavior of ethnic majorities, particularly whites in the ed States and Britain.尽管这一领域的大部分研究者都把重点放在了少数族群上,但考夫曼却反其道而行之:他研究的是多数族群的行为,特别是美国和英国的白人。White nationalism, he said, is the belief that national identity should be built around white ethnicity, and that white people should therefore maintain both a demographic majority and dominance of the nation’s culture and public life.他说,白人民族主义是一种信念,认为应该围绕白色人种建立国民身份,因而白人应该保持在人口中的多数地位,以及在国家文化和公共生活中的主导地位。So, like white supremacy, white nationalism places the interests of white people over those of other racial groups. 因此,和白人至上一样,白人民族主义把白人的利益放在了其他种族的利益前面。White supremacists and white nationalists both believe that racial discrimination should be incorporated into law and policy.白人至上主义者和白人民族主义者都认为,种族歧视应该被纳入法律和政策中。Some will see the distinction between white nationalism and white supremacy as a semantic sleight of hand. 一些人会认为白人民族主义和白人至上之间的差别只是词语上的障眼法。很多白人至上主义者也是白人民族主义者,反之亦然。But although many white supremacists are also white nationalists, and vice versa, Kaufmann says the terms are not synonyms: White supremacy is based on a racist belief that white people are innately superior to people of other races; white nationalism is about maintaining political and economic dominance, not just a numerical majority or cultural hegemony.尽管如此,考夫曼说这两个词并非同义词:白人至上是建立在白人天生比其他种族优秀的种族主义信念上;白人民族主义说的是保持在政治和经济领域的主导地位,不仅仅是人数上的优势或文化霸权。For a long time, he said, white nationalism was less an ideology than the default presumption of American life. 他说,在很长一段时间里,白人民族主义与其说是一种思想,不如说是对美国生活的默认设想。Until quite recently, white Americans could easily see the nation as essentially an extension of their own ethnic group.直到最近,美国的白人还很容易认为这个国家本质上是他们的族群的延伸。But the country’s changing demographics, the civil rights movement and a push for multiculturalism in many quarters mean that white Americans are now confronting the prospect of a nation that is no longer built solely around their own identity.但美国不断变化的人口组成、民权运动以及很多方面对多元文化主义的推动,意味着美国的白人现在面临的情况是美国不再是一个完全只围绕他们自己的身份认同构建的国家。For many white people, of course, the growing diversity is something to celebrate. 当然,对很多白人来说,日渐丰富的多样性值得庆祝。But for others it is a source of stress. 但对其他人来说,这是压力的源头。The white nationalist movement has drawn support from that latter group. 白人民族主义运动得到了后者的持。Its supporters argue that the ed States should protect its white majority by sharply limiting immigration and perhaps even by compelling nonwhite citizens to leave.该运动的持者辩称,美国应该通过严格限制移民,甚或通过强迫非白人公民离开美国来保护占人口多数的白人。Trump’s appointment of Bannon as his senior counselor and chief West Wing strategist has, more than anything, brought white nationalism to the forefront of conversation. 特朗普任命班农担任自己的高级顾问和西配楼首席策略师的做法尤其把白人民族主义者推上了风口浪尖。He is the former editor of Breitbart News, a site he described in August to Mother Jones as the platform of the alt-right. 班农曾是布莱巴特新闻(Breitbart News)的主编,并曾月对《琼斯母亲Mother Jones)称该网站是‘另类右翼’的平台。Although the alt-right is ideologically broader than white nationalism it also includes neoreactionaries, monarchists and meme-loving internet trolls white nationalism makes up a significant part of its appeal.尽管另类右翼在意识形态方面比白人民族主义更广泛——它还包括新反动派、君主主义者和钟爱米姆的网络挑衅者——但白人民族主义构成了其吸引力中重要的组成部分。For instance, Richard Spencer, who runs the website AlternativeRight.com, is also the director of the National Policy Institute, an organization that says it is devoted to protecting the heritage, identity, and future of people of European descent in the ed States, and around the world.比如,理查德#8226;斯潘Richard Spencer)既是网站AlternativeRight.com的负责人,也是全国政策研究所(National Policy Institute)的所长。该机构自称致力于保护美国和全世界有欧洲血统者的文化遗产、身份认同和未来。Spencer argues that immigration and multiculturalism are threats to America’s white population and has said his ideal is a white ethno-state. 斯潘塞称移民和多元文化主义是对美国白人的威胁,并表示他的理想是建立一个白人种族国家。He has avoided discussing the details of how this might be achieved, saying it is still just a dream, but has called for peaceful ethnic cleansing to remove nonwhite people from US soil.他避免讨论如何实现这一点的细节,称那仍然只是一个梦想,但他呼吁进行和平的种族清洗,以将非白人赶出美国的领土。Bannon, the Trump adviser, told The Times upon his appointment that he does not share those ethno-nationalist views. 身为特朗普的顾问,班农在就自己的任命接受时报采访时表示,他不赞成那些种族民族主义观点。But under his leadership, Breitbart News has gone to considerable lengths to cater to an audience that does. 但在他的领导下,布莱巴特新闻不遗余力地迎合认同相关观点的读者。And in a 2015 radio interview that was resurfaced last week by The Washington Post, Bannon opposed even highly skilled immigration, implying he believed it was a threat to American culture.015年的一次电台采访中,班农甚至反对技术移民,暗示他们是对美国文化的威胁。上周,《华盛顿邮报The Washington Post)让那次采访再次浮出水面。When two-thirds or three-quarters of the CEOs in Silicon Valley are from South Asia or from Asia, I think ... 当硅谷三分之二或四分之三的首席执行官都来自南亚或亚洲时,我觉得……he said, trailing off midsentence before continuing a moment later, a country is more than an economy. 说到一半时他的声音逐渐降低,过了一会儿才接着说,一个国家不只有经济。We’re a civic society.我们是一个公民社会。White nationalists, including Spencer, have rejoiced at Bannon’s appointment to such a senior position in the Trump White House. 包括斯潘塞在内的民族主义者,对班农在特朗普领导的白宫被委以如此重任高兴不已。But focusing on high-profile figures like Bannon may obscure the more significant way that white nationalist ideas are affecting politics and fueling the rise of politicians like Trump in the ed States as well as anti-immigrant populist movements in Britain and continental Europe.但把注意力放在像班农这样的重要人物身上,可能会掩盖白人民族主义思想影响政治——并助长像特朗普这样的政治人物在美国的崛起,以及英国和欧洲大陆反移民民粹主义运动的方式,后者更重要。Kaufmann argues that anxiety over white identity and anti-immigrant populist politicians can have a symbiotic relationship, each strengthening the other. 考夫曼称,白人身份认同引发的焦虑和反移民民粹主义政治人物之间可能存在一种相互增强的共生关系。When populist politicians gain mainstream success, that can make white nationalist ideas more socially acceptable.当民粹主义政治人物获得主流的成功时,这可能会让白人民族主义思想变得更容易被社会接受。It’s not just a question of ethnic change and people being alarmed over it, he said. 不仅仅是一个族群变化和人们对它感到担忧的问题,他说。It’s also a question of what people see as the boundaries of acceptable opposition. 也是一个人们认为可接受的反方界限是什么的问题。It’s about what counts as racism, and whether it’s racist to vote for a far-right party.它关乎什么可以被当做种族主义,以及投票持极右翼政党的行为是不是种族主义。This is all about the anti-racist norm, Kaufmann continued. 这一切都和反种族主义准则有关,考夫曼接着说。If it’s weakening or eroding because people think the boundaries have shifted.如果它正在衰退或是减弱,那是因为人们认为界限变了。来 /201611/479684遵义/注射瘦脸针大概费用In his highly entertaining biography of Winston Churchill, Boris Johnson observes that “To some extent all politicians are gamblers with events. They try to anticipate what will happen, to put themselves on the right side of history.Mr Johnson even interprets his hero’s decision to campaign against Hitler, early in the 1930s, in this cynical light, explaining that Churchill “Put his shirt on a horse called anti-Nazism... his bet came off in spectacular fashion鲍里斯约翰Boris Johnson)在自己撰写的关于温斯顿丘吉尔(Winston Churchill)的极富趣味性的传记中指出:“从某种程度上讲,所有政客都是见风使舵的赌徒。他们设法预测将要发生什么事,并让自己站到历史正确的一边。”约翰逊甚至用一种嘲讽的语气解释丘吉尔在上世0年代反对希特Hitler)的决定,他说,丘吉尔“把全部家当押在一匹被称为反纳粹主义的马上……他的押注获得了辉煌的成功”。I thought of that passage when I heard that Mr Johnson has thrown in his lot with the Leave campaign ahead of Britain’s referendum on EU membership on June 23.当我听说约翰逊将自己的命运与英国退出欧盟运动紧密联系起来时(英国将3日对其欧盟成员身份进行公投),我想起了书中所写的这一段。Mr Johnson has put his shirt on a horse called Euroscepticism. He is clearly hoping that his bet will also “come off in spectacular fashionand carry him, like Churchill, all the way into 10 Downing Street preferably without the added bonus of a world war.约翰逊把自己的家当押在了一匹被称为“欧洲怀疑主义”的马上。显然,他希望自己的押注也能“获得辉煌的成功”,并将他(像丘吉尔那样)一路送入唐宁0号——最好是没有一场世界大战作为额外赠品。The mayor of London’s decision is certainly a significant moment in the referendum campaign. A Vote Leave group that was in danger of being led by cranks, nobodies and octogenarians will now be headed by one of the country’s most popular politicians.这位伦敦市长的决定无疑是本次公投运动中的重要事件。有被怪人、无名之辈及耄耋老人领导危险的持退欧群体,如今将由这个国家最有声望的政治家之一率领。June could also be a particularly propitious time to be making the case against the EU. By then, the Greek debt crisis may well have flared up again. Europe’s migrant crisis is also likely to have intensified, as improved weather increases the numbers of would-be refugees crossing the Mediterranean. That will increase infighting among the members of the EU, making the organisation look ever more shambolic.6月或许还将是主张反对欧盟的特别有利的时机。届时,希腊债务危机很有可能已再次爆发。欧洲移民危机同样可能已进一步加剧——天气好转将使得穿越地中海的准难民人数增加。这将加剧欧盟成员国之间的明争暗斗,让该集团看起来显得愈发混乱。The vision of hundreds of thousands more desperate would-be migrants, not too far from the English Channel, will also play directly into the most emotive argument that the Leave campaign will deploy: the fear of mass migration from Europe and the demand that the free movement of people from the EU should be halted.数十万绝望的准移民(在离英吉利海峡不太远的地方)前景也将直接切合退欧运动可利用的最能激起民众情绪反应的理由:欧洲对大规模移民的恐惧,以及叫停欧盟境内人员自由流动的诉求。Seeing the potentially terminal difficulties that the EU is facing may have led Mr Johnson to try to “put himself on the right side of history by placing a bet against Europe.看到欧盟面临的这些潜在致命困难,可能已让约翰逊试图通过把宝押在反欧洲上,“让自己站到历史正确的一边”。But there is more than one way of being on the right side of history. The first is simply to anticipate the direction of events. The second, more important, way is to align yourself with the right causes and values those that the history books will ultimately vindicate. Churchill’s decision to oppose the appeasement of Hitler was right in both senses. He saw how events were unfolding and, yes, he ultimately benefited politically from his prescience. But he also stood up against evil.但站到历史的正确的一边的路不止一条。第一是要预测事态的发展方向。第二(更重要)是从事正义的事业,秉持正确的价值观——历史最终将明这一切。丘吉尔反对对希特勒实行绥靖政策的决定在这两个方面都是正确的。他看清了事态的发展方向——没错,他最终在政治上获益于自己的先见之明。但他同时也站起来反抗邪恶。Mr Johnson’s decision to campaign for Brexit might put him on the right side of history, but only in the first and narrowest sense of foreseeing the direction of events. The EU is certainly in a sorry mess at the moment. There is also a strong strand of anti-establishment, anti-immigration populism loose in both the US and Europe, which could easily translate into a British vote to leave the EU. So betting against the EU could allow the London mayor to pocket some political winnings.约翰逊持英国退欧的决定或许会让他站在历史正确的一边,但仅仅是在第一层也是最狭隘的意义上,即预测事态发展方向。当下的欧盟确处于一种令人遗憾的混乱之中。美国和欧洲都有一股强大的反政府、反移民的民粹主义松散力量,它们可以很容易地转化为持英国退欧的投票结果。因此,押注退欧可以让这位伦敦市长获得些许政治资本。But Mr Johnson is on the wrong side of history in the more important sense, because he is aligning himself with some of the most malign forces in Europe and Britain. Across Europe, it is the far-right and the far-left that are calling for the destruction of the EU and they will cheer loudest if Britain votes to leave. On the borders of the EU, Vladimir Putin sees Brussels as a bitter enemy and hugely resents the sanctions that the EU imposed on Russia after its annexation of Crimea. The Russian president will be delighted and emboldened at any sign of the disintegration of the EU.但在更重要的意义上,约翰逊站在了历史的错误一侧,因为他跟欧洲和英国最有害的势力站在了一起。在整个欧洲,正是极右翼和极左翼势力在呼吁摧毁欧盟——如果英国通过投票脱离欧盟,他们的欢呼声将是最响亮的。在欧盟的边界上,弗拉基米尔渠京(Vladimir Putin)把欧盟视为一个劲敌,而俄罗斯吞并克里米亚招致欧盟的制裁,也引起了俄罗斯的极大怨恨。欧盟解体的任何迹象,都将令这位俄罗斯总统感到欢欣鼓舞和信心大增。In failing to appreciate the wider international context for his actions, Mr Johnson is following a distinctly un-Churchillian path. Churchill was the very opposite of a Little Englander. That is why he understood so quickly what the rise of Hitler meant for Britain, Europe and the world. It is also why he was one of the first politicians to understand the significance of Soviet actions in eastern Europe after 1945 leading him to coin the term “iron curtain约翰逊走上了一条不同于丘吉尔的道路,因为他未能从国际大形势的角度思考自己的做法。丘吉尔非常反对“小英格兰主义者Little Englander)。正因如此,他才那么快就明白了希特勒的崛起对英国、欧洲和世界意味着什么。也正因如此,他才成为最早理945年以后苏联在东欧行动的意义的政治家之一,他为此创造了“铁幕”一词。A modern Churchill, which is what Boris clearly aspires to be, would immediately understand that Britain’s decision about whether to stay in the EU has to be seen as part of a wider global picture. And that big picture is very worrying with Russia rediscovering its taste for war, the Middle East disintegrating, violent jihadism on the rise, China flexing its muscles in the Pacific and the US flirting with the lunacy of “Trumpism约翰逊明显希望成为现代丘吉尔。但丘吉尔如果活到现在,他立刻就会明白,必须在全球大形势下权衡英国是否留在欧盟的决定。目前的大形势非常令人担心——俄罗斯再次燃起了战争意愿,中东在分崩离析,残暴的圣战运动在兴起,中国在太平洋地区伸展肌肉,而美国似乎有实行愚蠢的特朗普主义(Trumpism)之势。Given all that, it is depressingly small-minded of Mr Johnson to justify campaigning for Brexit partly on the grounds that Britain might save a bit of money on its contributions to the EU budget. The fact is that Britain will pay a very heavy price directly and indirectly if the EU disintegrates. As David Cameron, prime minister, correctly pointed out, this is ultimately a question of national security.鉴于这一切,约翰逊以脱欧会节省一点对欧盟预算的摊派额作为持脱欧的部分理由,此举目光短浅得令人沮丧。事实上,如果欧盟解体的话,英国将付出非常昂贵的代价——包括直接和间接代价。英国首相戴David Cameron)说的有道理,这从根本上来说是一个关乎国家安全的问题。When Mr Johnson made his name as a journalist in the 1990s, campaigning against the follies of Brussels was fun. It was even possible to argue, back then, that the ambitions of the EU represented a serious threat to British self-government. But it would be absurd to look around today’s world and identify the EU as the biggest threat to British democracy or national security. The times have changed. Sadly, it seems that Mr Johnson has not changed with them.当上世纪90年代约翰逊以记者身份成名的时候,反对欧盟愚蠢之举是件趣事。在那时,甚至可以辩称,欧盟的雄心对英国自治构成严重威胁。但是,环顾当今世界之后,还把欧盟说成英国民主或国家安全的最大威胁,将是荒谬可笑的。时代变了。遗憾的是,约翰逊并未随着时代变迁而改变。来 /201602/428523遵义/面部激光脱毛BEIJING: China is a potential winner if Britain and the European unx rework trade deals and look for investors after a British exit.北京:如果英国在退欧后与欧盟重谈贸易协定,并寻找新的投资者,中国成为潜在的赢家。Beijing faces a blow from weaker European demand for its exports and pressure to hold its yuan steady in turbulent currency markets. 北京正面临着来自欧洲需求削弱的打击,因为她需要出口,以及在混乱的货币市场中保持人民币稳定。But economists and political analysts say if Britain and the EU split both sides will look to cash-rich Chinese companies that are expanding abroad with the possible bonus for Beijing of closer political ties.但经济学家和政治分析者认为,如果英国与欧洲分裂,两边都会把目光投向资金雄厚的、正在海外扩张的中国公司——为了获得可能的利益,进而寻求与北京更紧密的政治联系。来 /201606/451968遵义/注射丰胸的价格

遵义/botox注射瘦脸的价格遵义/毛孔粗大 怎么办The Secret Service said it would investigate Donald J. Trump’s longtime butler over Facebook posts laced with vulgarities and epithets calling for President Obama to be killed.美国特勤局(Secret Service)表示,该机构将对一位为唐纳德·J·特朗Donald J. Trump)长年务的管家展开调查。后者此前在Facebook上发表了多篇包含粗俗言语和称谓的帖子,呼吁处死奥巴马总统。The racially tinged posts by the butler, Anthony Senecal, were unearthed by Mother Jones on Thursday, and referred to Mr. Obama as a “Kenyan fraudwho should be hanged for treason.《琼斯母亲Mother Jones)杂志发现了管家安东尼·塞内卡尔(Anthony Senecal)这些含有种族主义色的帖子,并在周四进行了报道。塞内卡尔在帖子里称奥巴马是个“肯尼亚骗子”,应该因叛国罪被绞死。“With the last breath I draw I will help rid this America of the scum infested in its government,Mr. Senecal wrote last May, saying that the president should be dragged from the “white mosqueand hanged “from the portico count me in !!!!!”“哪怕就剩最后一口气,我也要帮助美国除掉这个寄生在政府内的败类,”去月,塞内卡尔曾这样写道。他还表示,应该把奥巴马从“白色清真寺”里拖出来,绞死“在门廊上——算我一个!!!!!”In a statement Thursday, the Secret Service said it was “aware of this matter and will conduct the appropriate investigation.”周四,特勤局发布了一份声明,表示该机构已“获知此事,并将展开相应的调查。”Hope Hicks, a Trump campaign spokeswoman, said in an email about the posts by Mr. Senecal, “We totally and completely disavow the horrible statements made by him.Mr. Senecal did not immediately respond to a telephone call and Facebook message seeking comment.特朗普竞选团队的女发言人霍普·希克斯(Hope Hicks)在谈论塞内卡尔帖子的邮件中表示,“我们完完全全不知晓他所做的这些可怕声明。”塞内卡尔没有接听记者拨打的电话,也没有立即回应记者通过Facebook发出的置评请求。The posts were revealed as Mr. Trump, the presumptive Republican nominee for president, has come under scrutiny for his associations with, and support from figures such as the former Ku Klux Klan leader David Duke. On Tuesday, Mr. Trump’s campaign aides said a technical glitch had included William Johnson, a self-proclaimed white nationalist, on a list of California delegates they submitted to the Secretary of State’s office.这些帖子的曝光,恰逢稳获共和党总统候选人提名资格的特朗普,因与前三KKu Klux Klan)头目戴维·杜克(David Duke)等人物有关联且得到他们持而受到密切关注之时。周二,特朗普的竞选助手表示,因为一项技术故障,自称为白人民族主义者的威廉·约翰William Johnson)被列入了他们提交给国务院办公室的加州代表名单中。Mr. Senecal had worked almost 30 years for Mr. Trump, and was the subject of a profile in The New York Times in March. He spoke of knowing Mr. Trump’s sleeping pattens, his culinary preferences and just the right ways to cheer him up when he was in a sour mood, once hiring a bugler to play “Hail to the Chief.”塞内卡尔已经为特朗普工作了将近30年。今月,《纽约时报》曾做过一篇有关他的人物特写。采访中,他说起自己熟悉特朗普的睡眠模式和饮食上的偏好,也知道在特朗普情绪不好时如何让他高兴起来,比如他曾经雇了一位号手给特朗普演奏《向统帅致敬Hail to the Chief)。When he tried to retire in , Mr. Trump deemed him irreplaceable and kept him on as an unofficial historian at the Mar-a-Lago estate in Florida, the article said. But in her statement, Ms. Hicks said, “Tony Senecal has not worked at Mar-a-Lago for years.”当他在年表示想要退休时,特朗普认为无人能够替代他,因此将他留了下来,充当自己位于佛罗里达州的马阿拉歌庄园的非正式历史专家。但希克斯在声明中表示,“托尼·塞内卡尔已经多年不在马阿拉歌工作。”Some of Mr. Senecal’s other Facebook posts aimed at Ferguson protesters and various public figures, including Hillary Clinton, the Democratic front-runner for president, whom he called “Killery Clinton Beyoncé; and the Republican National Committee, which has quarreled with Mr. Trump through the nomination process. The committee members should be hanged for treason, he wrote in March.在塞内卡尔其他的Facebook帖子中,还有一些是针对弗格森事件中的抗议者和各种公众人物,包括最有可能获得民主党总统候选人提名的希拉里·克林Hillary Clinton)、碧昂斯(Beyoncé),以及共和党全国委员Republican National Committee),后者在整个提名过程中曾与特朗普发生争执。塞内卡尔在今年3月写道,该委员会所有成员都应该因叛国罪被绞死。他在提到希拉里·克林顿时称其为杀人的克林Killery Clinton)。Although some of the posts, which dated to 2015, were written publicly while others were visible only to friends, Mother Jones said that Mr. Senecal had confirmed that they were his words: “I wrote that. I believe that.”这些帖子中最早的一些可以追溯到2015年,尽管其中有些是公开发布,但其他的都是只有朋友可见。《琼斯母亲》杂志表示,塞内卡尔已经承认这些帖子出自他之手:“我写了那些东西。我想是的。”来 /201605/443809Here’s how President-elect Trump could unify a bitterly divided America, provide well-paying jobs to many of the millions of disaffected workers who voted for him, and lift the economy, stock market and tax rolls.候任总统特朗普该采取什么办法,让严重分裂的美国重新团结一致,向投票给他的众多心怀不满的工人提供高薪工作岗位,并提振经济、股市和税收?All he needs to do is what he presumably does best: build something.他只需要做他大概最擅长的事情:建造点什么。And I don’t mean a few miles of asphalt or a paint job on a rusting bridge.我指的并不是铺几英里长的沥青路,或者粉刷生锈的桥梁。Build something awe-inspiring. 而是建造某种令人赞叹的东西。Something Americans can be proud of. 某种让美国人引以为豪的东西。Something that will repay the investment many times over for generations to come.某种让子孙后代受益无穷的东西。Build the modern-day equivalent of the Golden Gate Bridge, the Hoover Dam, the Lincoln Tunnel or the Timberline Lodge. 建造当代的金门大桥(Golden Gate Bridge)、胡佛水Hoover Dam)、林肯隧Lincoln Tunnel)或林木木Timberline Lodge)。Or even, given Mr Trump’s passion for the sport, another Bethpage State Park Black Course the first public golf course to host the prestigious ed States Open.又或者,鉴于特朗普对体育的热情,建造另一座贝斯佩奇州立公园黑球场(Bethpage State Park Black Course)——第一座承办享有盛誉的美国公开ed States Open)的公共高尔夫球场。All of these are Depression-era New Deal public works projects started under President Franklin D. 所有这些公共工程项目,都属于应对大萧条的罗斯福新政的一部分,始建于富兰克林#8226;D#8226;罗斯Franklin D. Roosevelt that are still in use.Roosevelt)总统治下,目前仍在使用之中。Can anyone name even one infrastructure project from President Obama’s 0 billion American Recovery and Reinvestment Act? I didn’t think so. 有谁能从奥巴马总统价000亿美元的《美国复苏与再投资法案American Recovery and Reinvestment Act)找出哪怕一个基建项目吗?我不这么认为。In fairness to Mr Obama, Republicans in Congress bitterly opposed his public works spending plans, and he lamented there were too few shovel y projects.替奥巴马说句公道话,共和党议员曾强烈反对其公共工程出计划,而且他曾感叹几乎没有什么可以动工的项目。That didn’t stop F.D.R. 但这没能阻挡住罗斯福。His Public Works Administration and Works Progress Administration, using combinations of public and private money, solicited proposals from states and cities, hired millions of workers and eventually built 78,000 bridges, 650,000 miles of roads, 700 miles of airport runways, 13,000 playgrounds and 125,000 military and civilian buildings, including more than 40,000 schools in most cases to high standards of quality and design.他的公共工程(Public Works Administration)和工程振兴(Works Progress Administration)动用了公共以及私人资金,向各个州和城市征询了意见,雇用了数以百万计的工人,最终建成了7.8万座桥梁5万英里长的道路00英里长的飞机跑道.3万座游乐场以2.5万座军用和民用建筑,包括000所学校——其质量和设计标准在大多数情况下都很高。The federal government built the La Guardia, Ronald Reagan Washington National and Los Angeles International airports, the Upper Mississippi locks and dams, the Bonneville power project on the Columbia River, the Robert F. 联邦政府修建了拉瓜迪亚机La Guardia)、罗纳德#8226;里根华盛顿国家机Ronald Reagan Washington National)和洛杉矶国际机场(Los Angeles International),在哥伦比亚Columbia River)兴建了纳维Bonneville)电力项目,在纽约架起了罗伯特#8226;F#8226;肯尼迪大Robert F. Kennedy Bridge in New York, and the Florida Keys Overseas Highway. Kennedy Bridge),还修建了佛罗里达跨海公Florida Keys Overseas Highway)。Most are still in use today. 它们大多仍在使用之中。To a large degree, this is the infrastructure that made America great, to borrow Mr Trump’s catchphrase.套用特朗普的说法,这些基建项目在很大程度上让美利坚散发出了伟大荣光。What Roosevelt accomplished is astounding, said Scott Myers-Lipton, a sociology professor at San Jose State University and author of the books Rebuild America: Solving the Economic Crisis Through Civic Works and Ending Extreme Inequality.罗斯福取得的成就令人叹为观止,圣何塞州立大学(San Jose State University)社会学教授、著有《重建美利坚:以民用工程解决经济危机Rebuild America: Solving the Economic Crisis Through Civic Works)和《终结极端不平等Ending Extreme Inequality)的斯科特#8226;迈尔利普Scott Myers-Lipton)说。But it’s not so much the numbers people remember today. 但这并不是今天的人们记忆中的数字。Most people just know there was an alphabet soup of organizations, he said. 大多数人只知道曾经有各种各样的机构名称字母缩写,他说。What they see and remember are the landmarks: the Bay Bridge, Reagan National Airport or the baseball stadium in San Jose. 他们看在眼中、记在心里的只有地标:海湾大Bay Bridge)、里根国家机场或者圣何塞的棒球场。We’re living on that legacy today.我们今天依靠那些遗产过活。Repealing Obamacare, lowering taxes for businesses and mostly wealthy people, overhauling the immigration system and privatizing Medicare what congressional Republicans have cited as their top legislative priorities would be divisive in a nation bitterly split along partisan and geographic lines. 被共和党议员引为立法优先事项的举措,比如废除奥巴马医改法Obamacare)、为企业以及主要由富人构成的群体减税、整饬移民制度、将联邦医疗保险(Medicare)私有化,会在一个沿着党派和地理界线严重割裂开来的国家引发分歧。But nearly everyone agrees that America has grossly neglected its infrastructure even as the rest of the world, notably China, has raced ahead.但几乎人人都认为,在世界上的其他地方——尤其是中国——迎头赶上之际,美国严重忽视了基础设施建设。Our airports are like from a third-world country, Mr Trump said at Hofstra University during the first presidential debate. 我们的机场就跟第三世界国家的差不多,特朗普在霍夫斯特拉大Hofstra University)参加第一场总统竞选辩论时说。You land at La Guardia, you land at Kennedy, you land at LAX, you land at Newark, and you come in from Dubai and Qatar and you see these incredible you come in from China, you see these incredible airports, and you land we’ve become a third-world country.你乘坐的飞机在拉瓜迪亚机场降落,在肯尼迪机场降落,在洛杉矶国际机场降落,在纽华克机场降落,你从迪拜或者卡塔尔过来,看过那里棒极了的机场,你从中国过来,看过那里棒极了的机场,然后飞机降落在美国,你会觉得我们已经变成了一个第三世界国家。Who could disagree? Hillary Clinton also called for a big increase in infrastructure spending.谁会有异议呢?希拉里#8226;克林Hillary Clinton)也曾呼吁大幅增加基建投资。The single best thing the federal government can do to promote economic growth is to repair and build the transportation network, the highways, railroads and airports, said Roger Noll, an emeritus professor of economics at Stanford and a senior fellow at the Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research. 要促进经济增长,联邦政府的最佳选择是整修和建设交通网络,公路、铁路和机场,斯坦福大学经济学荣休教授、斯坦福大学经济政策研究所(Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research)高级研究员罗#8226;诺尔(Roger Noll)说。It’s been neglected for 30 years.这方面被忽视已经0年了。Last year, Dan McNichol, author of the book The Roads That Built America, a history of the Interstate highway system, and a White House adviser on transportation issues for President George H. 去年,讲述州际公路系统历史的著作《造就美国的公路The Roads That Built America)的作者、在乔治#8226;H#8226;W#8226;布什(George H. W. Bush, navigated the country in a 1949 Hudson Commodore on a mission to investigate the state of America’s infrastructure.W. Bush)总统任内担任白宫交通运输事务顾问的#8226;麦克尼科Dan McNichol),曾开着一949年的哈德逊准Hudson Commodore)在全国各地游历,调查美国基础设施的情况。I was trying to see if this was really a crisis or a media sensation, he told me this week from California, where he’s working on the state’s high-speed rail project. 我想知道这真的是一场危机,还是只是媒体的耸人听闻,身在加利福尼亚州的他本周对我说。他正参与该州的高铁项目。I found out it’s pretty dire in terms of total infrastructure. 我发现,就基础设施的总体情况而言形势非常严峻。For a nation that leads the world in global trade, our systems are failing.对一个在全球贸易中引领世界的国家来说,我们的各种系统每况愈下。Mr Trump has pledged trillion over 10 years, but no one I spoke to thought that was enough. 特朗普承诺在10年时间里投资1万亿美元,但和我交谈过的所有人都觉得不够。Doubling that would be more realistic, Mr McNichol said. 麦克尼科尔说,翻一番更实际。And Mr Trump’s campaign proposal was limited to infrastructure projects that could pay for themselves out of user fees, which seems like a shortsighted approach. 此外,特朗普竞选时提出的方案仅限于可通过收费实现自负盈亏的基础设施项目。这看上去似乎是一种目光短浅的做法。Most economists say the best way to finance a big public works program, particularly given today’s low interest rates, would be for the government to borrow most of the money from investors.大部分经济学家表示,为大型公共工程筹集资金的最佳方式是,资金大头由政府向投资者举债,尤其是考虑到眼下利率水平低。Pulling off something on the scale of the Depression-era public works programs would be no small feat. 在规模堪比大萧条时期的公共工程上取得成功绝非易事。Recent federal infrastructure efforts, including reconstruction after Hurricanes Katrina and Sandy, as well as the Obama stimulus program, hardly inspire confidence.最近的联邦基础设施项目,包括飓风卡特里娜和桑迪后的重建,以及奥巴马的刺激计划,都让人感到心里没底。Alan Brinkley, a professor of history at Columbia, said he doubted Mr Trump could replicate Roosevelt’s achievements. 哥伦比亚大学历史教授阿兰#8226;布林克利(Alan Brinkley)怀疑特朗普无法复制罗斯福的成就。Roosevelt had a coherent mission, if not always a consistent way to address the Depression and the economic crisis, Mr Brinkley said. 罗斯福担负的使命始终如一,尽管他应对大萧条和经济危机的方式并非总是一致,布林克利说。He was eclectic in his approach because he was pragmatic.他在方法上的多样是源于他的务实。Even more important, Roosevelt was informed, surrounded himself with informed people, and was prepared on Day 1 to begin. 更重要的是,罗斯福见多识广,身边也都是见多识广之人,上任第一天他就准备开始了。I’m not sure that Trump’s policies go beyond his electioneering slogans, Mr Brinkley said. 我不确定特朗普的政策会不会超越竞选时打出的口号,布林克利说。I’m afraid a new P.W.A., he added, referring to the Public Works Administration, will stand for Promises Without Actions.我担心新的PWA,他接着说,这里指的是公共工程(Public Works Administration),会变成‘只许诺不行动Promises Without Actions)。But in the spirit of magnanimity, let’s give Mr Trump the benefit of the doubt, as Mr Obama has suggested. 但是,正如奥巴马所建议的,本着宽宏的精神,我们权且相信特朗普。He’ll need his own versions of Harold L. Ickes, Roosevelt’s interior secretary, who ran the P.W.A., and his close adviser Harry L. Hopkins, who ran the W.P.A.他将需要找到自己的哈罗#8226;L#8226;伊克Harold L. Ickes)和自己的亲密顾问哈里#8226;L#8226;霍普金斯(Harry L. Hopkins)。前者是罗斯福的内政部长,主政公共工程,后者负责工程振兴。Mr Trump will also need to be hands-on. 特朗普还需要亲力亲为。Roosevelt asked states and cities for proposals, but he made nearly all the final decisions himself. 罗斯福让各州各市提交方案,但几乎所有最终决定都是他自己拍板的。F.D.R. was a fanatic about infrastructure, roads, planning, Mr McNichol said. FDR非常喜欢基础设施、公路和规划,麦克尼科尔说。As a commissioner in New York, he helped lay out the Taconic Parkway. 在纽约当警察局长时,他就参与设计了塔科尼克公园大道(Taconic Parkway)。He even helped design the picnic tables.他甚至还参与设计过野餐桌。The right public works projects, said Mr Myers-Lipton of San Jose State, would address the public anger that elected Trump, which is that the regular folks aren’t being taken care of. 圣何塞州立大学的迈尔利普顿说,合适的公共工程项目会缓解公众的一种愤怒情绪,他们觉得普通老百姓没有得到妥善的对待,正是这种情绪促使特朗普当选。During the Depression, the government built beautiful hotels and golf courses and parks. 在大萧条时期,政府修建了漂亮的酒店、高尔夫球场和公园。The vision was, what’s usually for the elite should be for everybody. 这背后的想法是,通常仅面向精英的务理应面向所有人。That’s the power of public works.这就是公共工程的力量。来 /201611/479513遵义/水光嫩肤During the cold war, military might and economic clout were the measures of power that mattered. Today in an increasingly interdependent world, among states where use of direct force against one another is all but unthinkable connections are equally important. The most connected states, wielding influence and controlling information flows, are more useful for making things happen in the world than those that simply possess enormous armies. 在冷战时期,军事实力和经济影响力是衡量国家实力的关键指标。如今,联系同样关键——在一个日益相互依存的世界里,各国之间直接动武几乎是不可想象的。与那些只是拥有庞大军队的国家相比,能够施加影响并控制信息流动、对外联系最多的国家更能成事Global flows of goods, services, finance, people and data “play an ever-larger role in determining the fate of nations, companies and individuals according to the McKinsey consultancy, which measures these factors in its “connectednessindex. “To be unconnected is to fall behind.Singapore, a small, open economy at the heart of global shipping and finance flows, comes top of the list the Netherlands, the US, Germany, Ireland and the UK follow. 咨询公司麦肯McKinsey)表示,全球商品、务、资金、人员和数据流动在决定国家、公司和个人的命运方面“扮演着越来越大的角色”。麦肯锡在其“联系度”指数中对这些因素进行了衡量。“孤立就会落后”。处于全球航运和资金流动核心的小型开放经济体新加坡名列榜首,荷兰、美囀?德囀?爱尔兰和英国紧随其后Energy still plays a big part in determining connectedness. As long as specific Middle Eastern countries are at the centre of the world’s energy flows, they exercise power over other nations vastly disproportionate to their geographical size or military and economic weight. The Opec countries proved this point in the 1970s, when energy production was much more concentrated. Today, Saudi Arabia is refusing to allow a deal to freeze oil production unless its regional rival, Iran, agrees to sign up. 能源仍然在决定联系度方面占据重要位置。只要中东国家仍处于全球能源流动的核心,它们就能够对其他国家施加与自身国土面积或者军事和经济实力极不匹配的影响力。在能源生产集中度高得多的上世纪70年代,欧佩克(OPEC)国家明了这一点。如今,沙特拒绝达成冻结石油生产的协议,除非其地区竞争对手伊朗同意签署协议In the next decade, however, influence over global digital flows will grow far more important. We will see the development of sophisticated tools to impose digital sanctions, blocking some commerce, information and communication but allowing the rest. 然而,在下一个十年,对全球数字流动的影响力将变得重要得多。我们将会看到复杂工具被开发出来,用来施加数字制裁,封锁一些贸易、信息和通讯,但允许其余的贸易、信息流动和通讯进行Meanwhile, the lens of connectedness offers a useful perspective on the debate over British membership of the EU. Brexit advocates want to make Britain an island on the edge of the union once more close enough to claim the benefits of connectedness but with sufficient autonomy to be truly sovereign. In fact, the connectedness index shows that the status quo provides highly beneficial codependence for both parties. 与此同时,从联系度的角度来看待英国退欧辩论,是一个有益的视角。主张英国退欧的人希望让英国再次成为欧盟(EU)边缘的一座岛屿——足够靠近以享受联系的益处,但又有足够的自治权,从而成为真正的主权国家。实际上,联系度指数表明,维持现状带来的相互依赖对双方都非常有利When the scores of all the member states are combined, the EU as a whole ranks third in the connectedness index, behind Singapore and the US. Without Britain the EU27 ranks fourth; Britain without the EU ranks third. 当综合所有成员国的得分的时候,欧盟在联系度指数中整体排名第三,落后于新加坡和美囀?不包括英国在内的欧7个成员国排名第四;脱离欧盟的话,英国排名第三The reason is that so many of the EU27’s flows are within the union: 45 per cent of goods trade; 52 per cent of services trade; 62 per cent of foreign direct investment flows; 72 per cent of people flows; and 77 per cent of data flows. The UK presents almost the opposite profile: 70 per cent of UK trade flows are with the rest of the world, outside the EU; 86 per cent of services trade; 63 per cent of FDI flows; and 62 per cent of people flows. So membership allows Britain to participate fully in the intra-union flows that create the world’s largest economy; and provides the EU27 with a vital link to the rest of the world. 理由是,欧盟27国中有许多流动是在联盟内部发生的5%的商品贸易2%的务贸易2%的外国直接投FDI)流动2%的人员流动,以及77%的数据流动。英国的情况几乎完全相反0%的商品贸易流动6%的务贸易3%的外国直接投资流动以2%的人员流动是在英国与欧盟以外的其他国家之间发生的。因此欧盟成员国身份使得英国可以完全参与联盟内部流动——这些流动创造了全球最大的经济体——并为欧7国提供了与全球其他国家的关键联系The picture is much the same in diplomacy. As US President Barack Obama explained in his recent interview with The Atlantic, much of his foreign policy has been aimed at substituting diplomacy for force as the principal tool for getting things done in the world. His engagement, for example, has prevented Iran acquiring nuclear weapons. 外交方面的情况同样如此。正如美国总统巴拉#8226;奥巴Barack Obama)最近在接受《大西洋The Atlantic)采访时解释的那样,他的许多对外政策的目的是用外交取代武力,作为在国际上促成事情的主要工具。例如,他的接触策略已经阻止了伊朗获得核武器Diplomacy is social capital; it depends on the density and reach of a nation’s diplomatic contacts. The Global Diplomacy Index, just published by Australia’s Lowy Institute for International Policy, ranks nations by the number of embassies, consulates and missions they have. The US comes first, then France, China and Russia then the UK, ahead of the other EU states. 外交是社会资本;它依赖于一国外交联系的深度和广度。澳大利亚洛伊国际政策研究所(Lowy Institute for International Policy)刚刚发布的全球外交指Global Diplomacy Index)按照各国拥有的大使馆、领事馆和使团的数量进行了排名。美国排名第一,随后是法国、中国和俄罗斯,接下来是英国,排在其他欧盟国家之前As part of Europe, Britain has the benefit of consulates and missions in many cities where it is not now represented. Given that the Foreign Office budget has fallen by almost 20 per cent in the past five years, tapping into this network matters. Once again, however, the EU would suffer from a British exit, losing the benefit of some of the world’s most talented diplomats. 作为欧洲的一部分,目前英国虽然在许多城市没有派驻使节,但仍同样享受有领事馆和使团的益处。鉴于英国外交部预算在过年里下降了近20%,利用这种网络至关重要。然而,欧盟同样将因英国退出而受损,不再享受拥有一些全球最有天赋的外交官的益处In sum, if connectedness is indeed a critical measure of 21st-century power, Britain and the EU would both lose substantially from Brexit. John Donne knew this 400 years ago. Everyone knows the line, “No man is an island Few remember the next words from his Devotions Upon Emergent Occasions. “Every man is a piece of the continent, a part of the main; if a clod be washed away by the sea, Europe is the less.总之,如果联系度真的1世纪实力的关键指标,英国和欧盟全都将因英国退欧而损失巨大。约#8226;多恩(John Donne)400年前就知道这一点。所有人都知道“谁都不是一座岛屿”这句诗,但很少有人记得多恩的祈祷文集《丧钟为谁而鸣:生死边缘的沉思录Devotions Upon Emergent Occasions)中接下来的文字。“每个人都是欧洲大陆的一小块,那本土的一部分;如果一块泥巴被海浪冲掉,欧洲就小了一”If British membership of the EU be washed away, the clod and the continent will both be diminished. Joined together, and connected to the rest of the world, they are mighty. 如果英国真的退欧,英国和欧洲都将被削弱。两者合在一起,并与其他国家紧密联系,它们都将是强大的。来 /201604/438554遵义/怎么样才能去除雀斑

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