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2018年04月20日 09:29:49

5 different bacteria have been studied and现在正在研究五种细菌和它们的功能have known functions in the mouth, they include;它们包括:streptococcus mutans, pophyromonas gingivalis,变异链球菌,牙龈卟啉单胞菌capnocytophaga gingivalis, prevotella melaninogenica,牙龈二氧化碳嗜纤维菌,产黑普氏菌streptococcus mitis. These bacterial species have been缓症链球菌found in higher concentrations with certain diseases.在某种疾病的高浓聚物里已经发现了细菌Also candida albicans, a type of yeast, has been found白色念珠菌,是一种酵母,已经在口腔里in the oral cavity and could have a role in oral发现了,在口腔癌里也起到了作用cancer.The first is streptococcus mutans which has首先发现的是变异链球菌,可能引起蛀牙been found to cause tooth decay. These bacteria digest这些细菌消化食物中的糖和淀粉the sugars and starches in foods and produce acids产生溶解牙釉质的酸which dissolve tooth enamel. When sucrose is present当蔗糖出现时plaque formation is increased by this bacteria thus这种细菌就会增加空斑的形成,因此a diet lower in table sugar is better for less plaque在饮食中降低蔗糖,对减少菌斑形成很有益formation.The second bacteria has been found to be第二种细菌和牙周病associated with periodontal or gum disease.牙龈病有关High levels found in adult periodontistis legions成人牙周病很严重很普遍,以及很高的as well as a high pathogenic potential make this潜在致病性使得这种细菌bacteria the main pathogen in periodontal diseases.成为牙周病主要的病原体There are many different strains of this bacteria that这种细菌有许多种不同的菌株正在被研究are being studied. This is one reason why keeping the这也是为什么保持口腔干净健康成为阻止oral cavity clean and healthy is important to keep这些细菌繁殖和形成新株种的these bacteria from reproducing and forming new strands.重要原因之一3 other bacteria have also been studied, during a还有三种其他的细菌也正在被研究study done to determine the relationship between在一个决定唾液腺细菌和口腔癌症关系的salivary microbes and oral cancer these 3 bacteria were研究过程中,发现这三种细菌found in much higher levels in oral cancer patients存在于口腔癌症患者中than those without oral cancer. The study looked at远多于那些没有患口腔癌症的患者40 different bacteria but these 3 showed signs of a这项研究观察了40多种不同的细菌relationship. The increased numbers of these 3但是这三种细菌显示了它们之间的关系bacteria predicted 80% of oral cancer cases among这三种增加的细菌预示了在那些测试者中those tested. As a result there could be a link between有80%的口腔癌病例,因此the bacteria in the mouth and cancer occurrence.口腔细菌和患癌之间是有联系的This technique of measuring the bacteria in the mouth这项衡量口腔细菌的技术could become a diagnostic indicator of oral cancer.将会成为口腔癌的诊断指标Lastly candida albicans is a type of yeast that has最后,白色念珠菌成为在口腔被发现的been found in the oral cavity. Many of these strains酵母菌的一种,许多这种菌株are resistant to anti fungal agents. It has been found都抵抗抗真菌药,比起在健康的口腔to be more prevalent in cancer cases rather than癌症案例中这种菌株更为普遍healthy mouths. This yeast may invade the oral这种酵母菌可能会入侵口腔上皮细胞epithelium and may be involved in oral luekoplakia.也可能涉及口腔黏膜白斑病Candidal leukoplakias have been found to develop in 9现在已经发现念珠菌白斑在口腔癌病例中to 40% of oral cancer cases however the exact从9%增值到40%,然而mechanisms by which they work are not fully它们具体是依靠什么机理如何起作用的understood. So what exactly is oral cancer and who is所以,具体什么是口腔癌,谁有风险患癌at risk? What are common signs and symptoms? How is it主要的迹象和症状是什么,它是如何诊断diagnosed and treated and finally what are some ways治疗的,最后,如何预防它,我们还没有to prevent it? To begin, roughly 30000 Americans are完全明白,开始,每年大约有3000名diagnosed with oral cancer every year. This year alone美国人被诊断出口腔癌,仅今年一年就有there have been 39400 new cases and 7900 deaths. There39400例新案例和7900例死亡病例are between 350000 and 400000 new cases diagnosed全世界每年大约有35万到40万例新案例worldwide each year as well. 5 year survival rates for口腔癌五年以上的存活率很低oral cancer are very low, around 54% because of the大约只有54% ,因为在癌症转移difficulty to detect before the cancer has metastasized或者扩散之前就检测出来太困难了or sp. Oral cancer kills one person every hour口腔癌每小时就能杀死一个人which is greater than the cancers of the cervix, brain,这比子宫癌、脑癌、子房癌、睾丸癌、肝癌ovary, testes, liver, kidney, malignant melanoma or肾癌 、恶性黑色素瘤以及淋巴癌都要高Hodgkin#39;s Lymphoma. More importantly incidents更重要的是,在美国和世界范围内in young adults is increasing in both the US and青年人患癌也在增加,因此worldwide so this is a very serious disease.这是一种非常严重的疾病 Article/201501/353339武汉/哪家治疗软下疳的医院好武汉/男科医院排名表?Do you hate the thought of eating animals, but Mom and Dad are die-hard carnivores? Use cold hard facts to let them know that going veggie is the way to go.你讨厌吃肉,而你的父母却无肉不欢?利用下面这些铁一般的事实让他们知道,素食是正确的选择。You Will Need你需要Health facts健康知识Environmental data环境数据Humanitarian reasons人道主义理由A list of famous vegetarians and vegans著名的素食主义者名单A willingness to cook愿意烹饪Steps步骤Never change your diet without first consulting your physician.未咨询医生之前一定不要改变饮食习惯。STEP 1 Discuss vegetarian pros1.讨论素食的优势Point out the health advantages of vegetarians: lower body mass, cholesterol, blood pressure, and rates of heart disease, type two diabetes and certain cancers.指出素食的健康优势:较低的体重,胆固醇,血压,患心脏病,二型糖尿病和某些癌症的风险也较低。STEP 2 Argue meat cons2.吃肉的弊端Argue that antibiotics used for growth in animals can lead to antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections in humans.告诉他们,动物生长过程中用的抗生素会导致人体内细菌产生抗药性。STEP 3 Reference environmental data3.提及环境数据Reference environmental data, such as habitat loss, ecosystem damage, soil erosion, and the greenhouse gas production involved in growing animal feed.提及一些环境数据,比如动物栖息地损失,生态破坏,土壤流失,以及动物饲养过程产生温室气体。Fossil fuels are also a main component of animal farming, and industrial fishing damages lake and ocean ecosystems.石化燃料也是动物饲养的重要组成部分,工业化破坏了湖泊和海洋生态系统。STEP 4 Use humanitarian reasons4.使用人道主义理由Tell them that much of the arable land worldwide is being used to grow grain to feed animals rather than people. Many people are starving while animals are being force-fed. Cruelty to animals is also implicit in producing meat, dairy, and eggs.告诉他们,世界上大部分耕地都用来种植饲养动物的谷物,而不是用来供应人类食用。在饲养动物的过程中,许多人被饿死。生产肉类,奶制品和蛋类对动物来说也非常残忍。STEP 5 Name famous vegetarians5.提出一些奉行素食主义的名人Give them a who’s who of notable vegetarians, including the Greek mathematician Pythagoras, Leonardo da Vinci, Mahatma Gandhi, and Sir Paul McCartney.告诉他们一些奉行素食主义的名人,包括希腊数学家毕达哥拉斯,著名艺术家达·芬奇,印度民族主义运动先锋甘地,英国音乐家詹姆斯·保罗·麦卡特尼爵士。STEP 6 Ask for their support and input6.请求他们的持和投入Ask your parents for their support and listen to their concerns and suggestions. They’ll be more open to the idea if you get them involved.请求父母持你,倾听他们的担忧和建议。如果让他们参与进来,他们会更容易接受。STEP 7 Plan sample meals7.计划样餐Invite them to help you plan sample meals with alternate protein sources. Be willing to compromise.邀请他们帮助你用蛋白质替代品来准备样餐。愿意做出妥协。Some good non-meat sources of protein are nuts, seeds, beans and lentils, tofu, soy products, dairy, and eggs.一些非肉类蛋白质来源包括坚果,籽类,蚕豆和小扁豆,豆腐,豆奶制品,奶制品和鸡蛋。STEP 8 Offer to cook8.主动烹饪Offer to cook some of the meals. This will take the pressure off Mom or Dad trying to juggle one for you and one for the rest of the family. It’ll also show you’re serious about your decision and willing to put in the work.主动提出烹饪。这样会缓解父母要为你准备一份菜单,为其他人准备另外一份菜单的压力。还可以表明你对待自己的决定是严肃认真的,愿意付诸行动。Did you know? Mahatma Gandhi’s birthday was named World Vegetarian Day.你知道吗?世界素食日就是根据甘地的生日来确定的。视频听力译文由。 /201503/366419武汉/江岸区男科预约

武汉/有男性生殖健康医院吗鄂州治疗阳痿早泄My Generation我的世代I#39;m part of a fearful generation, and I refuse to believe that I can change the world. I realize this may be a shock, but an independent Scotland will thrive is a lie. ;The U.K. is Better Together,; so in thirty years, I#39;ll tell my children I vote with my head. I have my priority straight: the Union is more important to me than Scotland.我是这个畏缩世代的一部分,而我不愿相信我可以改变世界。我了解这可能是个打击,但独立的苏格兰将会繁荣是个谎言。“联合王国团结起来会更好”,因此三十年后,我会告诉我的孩子我深思后才投票。我将我优先考虑的要事直接表述出来:联合王国对我而言远比苏格兰重要。As the experts tell me, 30 years from now, I would regret voting ;Yes.; I do not believe that I need to live in a country of my own making. In the future, the Union will prioritize Scotland#39;s needs, and I completely reject any suggestion that Westminster only wants us for our resources. The fact is my generation is fearful and unambitious. It is foolish to presume that we need change.正如专家们告诉我的,从现在起三十年,我会后悔投“赞成票”。我不相信我需要住在一个由我自己决定的国家。在未来,联合王国将优先考虑苏格兰的需求,而我完全否认任何英国国会只为了我们的资源而需要我们的说词。事实是我的世代都畏畏缩缩且毫无野心。擅自主张我们需要改变是愚蠢的。Or is it?或者真是这样吗?We need change. It is foolish to presume that my generation is fearful and unambitious. The fact is Westminster only wants us for our resources, and I completely reject any suggestion that the Union will prioritize Scotland#39;s needs. In the future, I need to live in a country of my own making. I do not believe that 30 years from now I would regret voting ;Yes; as the experts tell me.我们需要改变。认为我的世代都畏畏缩缩又没野心是愚蠢的。 事实是英国国会只因为我们的资源需要我们,而且我完全驳回任何联合王国将会优先考虑苏格兰需求的说词。未来,我需要住在一个由我自己决定的国家。我不相信从今以后的三十年,我会像专家所告诉我的那样,后悔投下“赞成票”。Scotland is more important to me than the Union. I have my priority straight. I vote with my head. So in 30 years, I#39;ll tell my children ;The U.K. is Better Together; is a lie. An independent Scotland will thrive. I realize this may be a shock, but I can change the world, and I refuse to believe that I#39;m part of a fearful generation.苏格兰对我而言远比联合王国重要。我将我优先考虑的要事直接表述出来。我是深思熟虑过投票的。所以三十年后,我会告诉我的孩子们“联合王国团结起来会更好”是个谎言。独立的苏格兰将会兴盛。我知道这或许是个冲击,但我可以改变这世界,而我拒绝相信我是一个畏缩世代的一部分。On September 18th, vote ;yes;.九月18号,投赞成票。 Article/201411/341961Youve translated that design into your laboratory? Absolutely.听说你也在实验室做了相同实验 是的It would be interesting to do that work in children but you can#39;t.不过我们不能用孩子来做实验Ethically you cant be giving alcohol to kids这与我们的社会道德感相冲突so one way weve been trying to do that is looking at an animal model -所以我们用动物作为实验的对象a very simple animal model of adolescence and we used rats.我用了最容易找到的青春期老鼠Linda re-ran the experiment for me.琳达为我重新做了这个实验The idea was to compare teenage with adult rats after theyd had a dose of alcohol让青春期和成年老鼠都喝了酒后and see which one was better at keeping their balance.看看哪个的平衡感更好So the rats were put upside down on a slope -老鼠被面朝下放到一个斜坡上a spot they would immediately try to get out of but would they be able to?看他们是不是能够离开The first on was a teenage rat.第一只是青春期的老鼠And he made it.它成功了 Article/201507/384285咸宁市中心医院不孕不育科汉川看男科医院

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