时间:2017年12月16日 11:21:59

Weve all heard the phrase “dog is mans best friend.”我们都听过这句话“是人类最好的朋友”。But how did dogs get to be so friendly with humans?但是为什么对人类那么友好呢?It turns out that dog domestication wasnt simply a matter of teaching Fido to play “fetch.”事实明的驯化并不是简单教会接住东西。Scientific research indicates that genetic selection played a key role as well.科学家的研究表明,遗传选择也起到了一个重要的作用。We know that dog domestication began over ten thousand years ago.我们知道的驯化开始于一万多年前。However, scientists have yet to reach a consensus on the details of how and why certain ancient wolves evolved into our furry canine friends.但是,科学家并未就远古狼如何以及为何演变成我们毛茸茸的犬类朋友而达成共识,并得到相关细节。Those details are getting clearer, though, thanks to a group of scientists working in Sweden and the ed States.但是得感谢瑞典和美国的一组科学家,他们让这些细节变得明朗。They analyzed the DNA from a dozen wolves and sixty dogs to determine which genetic markers distinguish domestic canines.他们分析了12只狼和60只的DNA,确定哪种遗传标记区别于被驯化的。In total, 122 specific genes that could be linked to domestication turned up.总共有122个特定基因被实与已经驯化的有联系。Probably the most illuminating discovery was the importance of three of those genes to doggie diet: they help with starch digestion.可能最具启蒙性的发现是,三个关于饮食的基因的重要性:他们帮助淀粉消化。It turns out that dogs possess significantly more copies of these genes than wolves do.这被实,比狼更多的复制了这些基因。As a result, your family pet is about five times better than its carnivorous relatives at digesting starchy foods like potatoes and rice.结果就是你的比它的食肉亲戚在消化淀粉类食物,如土豆和大米方面大约强五倍。This genetic evidence links the most recent phase of canine evolution to human history: during the shift from a hunter gatherer to an agricultural society, we started eating more starch, too.基因据表明,的进化与人类社会的历史发展有关联:从狩猎社会到农业社会,人类开始食用更多的淀粉食物。Waste dumps near new human settlements would have provided an ideal place for canines to scavenge food–but only if they were willing to trade in carnivorous cravings for a more starchy supper.废弃垃圾场就在人类的住所附近,这也为犬类提供了理想的觅食场所,但前提是它们愿意放弃肉食而选择淀粉类食物。So, there you have it: your pooch isnt merely your best friend–its also your evolutionary partner!所以,要知道,你的不仅仅是你最好的朋友,它也是你一同进化的小伙伴。 /201312/269093

YAEL:Good news, Don, I think Ive finally mastered schmoozing with strangers.雅艾尔:唐,告诉你个好消息,我想终于掌握了与陌生人闲谈的诀窍。DON:You have?唐:你有什么秘诀吗?YAEL:It all has to do with what scientists call trait transference, the process through which observers deduce facts about other people based on the things those people say.雅艾尔:这一切都与科学家们所谓的特质转移有关,在这一进程中,观察人员根据这些人说的事情演绎别人的事实。Researchers studying trait transference conducted an experiment in which they divided participants into two groups.研究人员进行了一项研究特质转移的实验,他们把参与者们分成两组。Members of the first group watched s of people describing themselves, and members of the second group watched s of people describing acquaintances.第一组看描述自己的视频,而第二组则观看人们描述熟人的视频。And heres the interesting thing.而后有趣的事情出现了。The observers associated the traits the speakers talked about with the speakers themselves, even if the speakers were describing their acquaintances.观察人员演讲者谈论的相关特征与演讲者自己联系起来,即使说话人是描述他们的熟人。In other words, when you hear a stranger saying someone is mean, you end up thinking the stranger is the mean one.换句话说,当你听到一个陌生人说别人吝啬,你最终会认为这位陌生人是个吝啬鬼。DON:But that makes no sense.唐:但这简直没有道理。YAEL:The researchers were surprised too, and here is what they think happens.雅艾尔:研究人员也对此发现感到惊讶,接下来就是他们认为发生的事情。When a person says something, the first thing you do is figure out the gist of what he or she is saying.当一个人说了一些事情,你的第一反应是找出他或她说的要点。So if I tell you my friend George is mean, the gist of that will be meanness.所以如果我告诉你我的朋友乔治吝啬,毋庸置疑要点就是吝啬。But because Im the one talking, you begin to associate that trait with me.但是,因为我是说话者,你开始将这一特点与我联系。DON:Kind of like shooting the messenger.唐:有点像是当头棒喝。YAEL:Exactly. And eventually, you forget whether I was talking about myself or someone else, and end up thinking Im the mean one.雅艾尔:的确如此。最终,你忘了我是否在谈论自己或别人,最终会想我是个吝啬鬼。DON:So if you say nice things about other people, theyll end up thinking youre the nice one.唐:所以,如果你说的是别人的好话,他们最终可能会认为你是个不错的家伙。YAEL:You got it. I guess that old saying is true:雅艾尔:现在你明白其中道理了。我想老话说的都是真理:if you cant say something nice, dont say anything at all! 如果你嘴里没好话,那干脆就什么也别说! 201311/265184

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