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2018年04月20日 09:31:20 | 作者:安康对话 | 来源:新华社
Qunin, Yaoshu《齐民要术》Qunin, Yaoshu (also Main, techn,iques for the Welfare of the People ) is the most completely preserved of the anaent Chinese agricul-tural texts, and was written by the Northern Wei Dy-nasly offcial Jia Sixie. The book is believed to have been completed in the second year of Wu Ding of Eastern Wei, namely in 544, while anolher account gives the completion belween 533 and 544. The text of the book is divided into ten volumes and 92chapters, and records 1500-year-old Chinese ag-ronomy, horticulture, afforestation, sericulture, an-imal husbandry, veterinanlt medicine, breeding,brewing, cooking, storage,as well as remedies for barren land.The book ed nearly 200 ancient books.Important agricultural books such as Fansheng Zhishu and Simin Yueling from the Han and Jin Dynasties are now lost, so future genera-tions can only understand the operation of agriculture at the time from this book.Since the publication of the book, historical Chinese govemments have long otto-ched great importance to it. Since the book sp overseas, it has also often been considered a classic to study changes in the ancient species. When Charles Datwin was researching the theory of evolution, he made reference to an encyclopedia of anaent China. It is said that the book he referred to was in fact Qimin, Yaoshu .The book#39;s name Qimin, Yaoshu can be explained as techniques by which common peo-ple make their livelihood, and also be explicated as techniques to harness the people#39;s livelihood.《齐民要术》是迄今保存最为完整的我国古代农学著作,由北魏时期官员贾思勰所著。有人认为《齐民要术》成书于东魏武定二年,即公元544年,还有记载说该书的完成时间在公元533和544年间。该书正文分十卷,共九十二篇,收录了中国1500年前农艺、园艺、造林、蚕桑、畜牧、兽医、配种、酿造、烹饪、贮藏以及治荒等方面的知识。书中援引古籍近200部,所引的重要农学著作如《泛胜之书》、《四民月令》等汉晋重要农书现已失传,因此后人只能从此书了解当时的农业运作。该书自出版后,长期受中国历朝政府重视,传遍海外后亦常被认为研究古物种变化的经典,达尔文研究进化论时曾参考一部中国古代百科全书,有说此书正是《齐民要术》。《齐民要术》可解作平民谋生方法,亦可解为治理民生的方法。 /201601/419327Apple sent out press invites for its fall iPhone event on Thursday. The event will take place on Sept. 9, 2015 at the Bill Graham Civic Auditorium in San Francisco。星期四,苹果向媒体发出了秋季iPhone发布会的邀请。发布会将于2015年9月9日在旧金山的比尔·格雷厄姆市政礼堂举行。At the event, Apple is expected to show off new iPhone models as well as a new Apple TV。在发布会上,苹果将要展示新的iPhone型号和Apple TV。The Bill Graham Civic Auditorium is a new venue for Apple. Historically, the company holds iPhone events at Moscone West or at its campus in Cupertino. The auditorium has a capacity of 7,000 people。比尔·格雷厄姆市政礼堂是苹果的新场地。过去苹果公司一直在莫斯考尼西中心或者库珀蒂诺总部举行iPhone发布会。这次的礼堂可以容纳7000人。Typically, the company launches its products at the Yerba Buena Center in San Francisco, which holds 757 attendees. The Flint Center, where Apple held its 2014 event, holds up to 2,405. Upping the capacity to 7,000 people implies Apple has something extra planned。苹果公司通常会在旧金山的芳草地艺术中心发布新产品,那里可以容纳757人。2014年的苹果发布会在弗林特中心举行,容纳人数增加到2405人。这次容纳人数增加到7000人意味着苹果有个特别的计划。The clue for the event, ;Hey Siri, give us a hint; suggests that Siri may be involved. We#39;d previously heard that HomeKit wouldn#39;t be a big part of the launch, but the location, the Siri tie-in and the capacity of this event imply there has to be something beyond updated iPhone devices, a new Apple TV and the launch of watchOS 2.0.这次发布会的标语“嘿Siri,给我们点提示吧”暗示着这个计划可能跟Siri有关。我们早前听说HomeKit不是发布会的重要内容,而这次的场地、密切相关的Siri和场地的容纳量都说明除了升级iPhone设备、新的Apple TV和Apple Watch 2.0操作系统,发布会上一定还会有什么其他东西。 /201509/396556One of the most unsettling workplaces I have ever come across was a pub in the English Midlands I visited 12 years ago. It was nothing to do with the licensee of the Pig amp; Truffle in Rugby, an enterprising man called Mike Trow, who brought in some fine real ales.12年前,我去过英格兰中部的一家酒吧,那是我见过的最令人不安的工作场所之一。这家位于拉格比的酒吧名叫“猪与松露”(The Pig amp; Truffle),老板叫迈克#8226;特罗(Mike Trow),是一个很有进取心的人,卖一些上好的传统酿造啤酒。他并不是我感到不安的原因。Instead, the uneasiness I felt stemmed from something lurking in his cellar. Attached to the pipes that sent beer up to the bar was spy equipment introduced by Punch Taverns, a company whose flotation I was covering. Punch was both renting the pub to Mr Trow and selling him all his beer at above-market rates.实际上,他地窖里的某些东西才是不安的来源。往上输送啤酒的管子上安着Punch Taverns的监控设备。我当时正在报道这家公司上市的消息。Punch一方面将酒吧租给特罗,另一方面以高于市价的价格向其独家供应啤酒。The kit measured how much lager and bitter was flowing through the Pig amp; Truffle’s taps to ensure that he was not breaking this onerous exclusive supply deal by buying from a cheaper wholesaler: something that could have led to Mr Trow’s family being booted out of the pub and their home.这个设备是用来检测“猪与松露”的龙头流出了多少淡啤和苦啤,以防特罗违反这个义务繁多的独家供货协议,从价格较低的批发商那里买酒:违反协议可能使特罗和他的家人失去这间酒吧和他们的家。There was something odd about the bottles of Holsten Pils too: instead of the usual green top, they had a red one. This was another way Punch exerted Big Brother-style control over its publican “partners”, who bore most of the day-to-day trading risk. The Pig amp; Truffle would have been in trouble if it had been caught selling cheaper green-top Holsten.那里售卖的Holsten Pils啤酒的瓶子也有奇怪的地方:和平常的绿盖不同,这些瓶子上是红盖。这是Punch对它的“伙伴”酒店老板施加“老大哥”式控制的另一种方式,承担大部分日常运营风险的也是这些酒店老板。如果“猪与松露”被发现售卖更便宜的绿盖Holsten Pils啤酒,就会有麻烦。I’ve been thinking of Mr Trow recently — and the way his story ties in with broader workplace trends — because of a surprising development in the pub sector. British MPs last month voted to undo the “beer tie”, the legal quirk that permits such a lopsided landlord-tenant arrangement.由于酒吧业的一个惊人发展,我最近一直在思考特罗的故事,他的故事契合了一种更广泛的工作场所变化趋势。英国议会上月投票取消“啤酒捆绑令”(Beer Tie,译注:大酒吧公司向租入酒吧的店主独家供应啤酒的安排),正是这种奇怪的法律造成了如此不平等的租赁协议。The reform, allowing more publicans to buy cheaper beer from third parties, still has to be passed into law but it has aly hit the share prices of some in the sector. For example, Vianet, which installed the Pig amp; Truffle’s beer flow monitor for Punch, suffered a 16 per cent share price decline in the two trading days after the vote.这项改革使更多酒吧老板能从第三方购入更便宜的啤酒,虽然还未通过变成法律,但已经冲击了一些酒吧业内企业的股价。比如,为Punch在“猪与松露”酒吧安装啤酒流量监控器的公司Vianet,在议会投票后的2个交易日内股价下跌了16%。The sudden stiffening of parliamentary resolve after years of inaction is fantastic news, even though it has come too late for Mr Trow, who quit the pub trade years ago and now runs a mobile catering outlet. Punch, meanwhile, is a shadow of its former self and has had to renegotiate the debt it took on during its go-go years.在多年毫无动作后,议会突然坚定了决心,这是一个极好的消息,尽管对特罗来说来得太晚。几年前他就已经放弃了酒吧生意,现在经营着一家流动餐饮店。与此同时,Punch也好景不再,不得不对其繁盛时期欠下的债务进行重新谈判。But as desirable as it might be, the dismantling of spy equipment in pub cellars up and down the country would be somewhat at odds with the spirit of the age. Offices, in particular, are becoming havens for monitoring equipment with varying levels of intrusiveness.尽管这件事似乎值得一做,在全国上下的酒吧地窖拆除监控设备的行动却与时代精神有点格格不入。尤其是,办公室正变成各种侵入性程度不一的监控设备的安身之所。My colleague Hannah Kuchler in San Francisco wrote a terrific feature earlier in the year about the likes of Sociometric Solutions, which puts sensors in name badges to discover social dynamics at work, monitoring how employees move around the office, who they talk to and even what tone of voice they use.今年早些时候,我在旧金山的同事汉娜#8226;库赫勒(Hannah Kuchler)写了一篇关于Sociometric Solutions那类公司的好文章。Sociometric Solutions在企业客户的员工姓名牌上安装传感器,以了解员工工作时的社交活动,监测员工在办公室里的走动路线、交谈对象,甚至说话的语气。Another US manufacturer she profiled, Steelcase, puts sensors in office furniture and argues that the technology is now so cheap that it can be deployed “practically everywhere”.她概述的另一家美国制造商Steelcase,在办公家具上安装了传感器,称这种技术造价非常低廉,所以“基本上任何地方”都可以采用。I’ve recently been contacted by a thriving UK-headquartered company calledCondeco Software, whose products include wireless “workplace occupancy sensors” that track movement to assess how much desks and meeting rooms are being used.最近,一家总部设在英国的企业Condeco Software联系到了我。这家企业正在蓬勃发展,产品包括无线“工作场所占用传感器”,能够追踪人的移动情况,以估算有多少桌子和会议室正在使用。Its promotional for the product carries a whiff of sci-fi dystopia, showing the black gadgets stuck on the underside of desks like clunky bugging devices (or malign air fresheners), although I guess the aesthetics should improve under a new partnership it is set to agree with a manufacturer that would embed the sensors inside desks.该产品的宣传视频有一丝反乌托邦科幻小说的味道,视频里固定在桌子底部的黑色部件看上去像是笨重的窃听器(或者看上去不怀好意的空气清新器)。不过,这家公司即将和另一家制造商达成新的合作关系,我猜之后他们应该会提升产品美感,把传感器嵌入到桌子里。But Paul Statham, Condeco founder and chief executive, makes a strong case for why such technology is a good thing for companies, and maybe even staff.但Condeco的创始人兼首席执行官保罗#8226;斯泰瑟姆(Paul Statham)阐述了强有力的理由,说明为什么这种技术对企业是一件好事,甚至对员工来说也可能也是如此。The rise of flexible working has left some companies with unproductively configured space: perhaps too many old-fashioned rows of desks and not enough lounge areas and quiet zones to cater for homeworkers popping in.弹性工作制的兴起使一些公司的空间配置失去了用武之地:要吸引在家工作的人,公司有太多一排排的老式桌椅,休息区和安静区也不够。Condeco’s clients, who include Barclays and General Electric, are not interested in using the technology to monitor whether someone steps away for too many cigarette breaks, says Mr Statham: “It is not a time and motion study. This is not about monitoring people.”Condeco的客户包括巴克莱(Barclays)和通用电气(General Electric),对使用这种技术来监控员工出去抽烟休息的次数是否太多,这些客户并不感兴趣,斯泰瑟姆说:“这不是时间和移动研究。这与监控人无关。”There is an argument that the wave of office monitoring devices may not much alter the balance of power between employee and employer, given how easy it is to track internet and smartphone use aly.还有一种主张,称办公室监控设备的潮流或许不会从根本上动摇雇员和雇主之间的权力平衡,因为现在追踪互联网和智能手机的使用非常简单。Inevitably, though, there will be managers who use sensors as a cynical command-and-control tool. In such cases, investors should bear in mind that it is a second-rate company that has to spy on its allies to make its business model work — as the sorry saga of Punch has shown.然而,不可避免地会有经理把传感器作为一种体现怀疑姿态的命令和控制工具。在这种情况下,投资者应该记住一点,正如Punch令人遗憾的故事展现出来的那样,需要监视合作伙伴才能让商业模式运作的是二流企业。 /201502/360786

The moment Google announced it was letting users download their entire search histories, I clicked — and downloaded a cache of 128,948 searches, the sum total of my last 12 years, five months, one week and three days online. I fully expected to be reminded of those repeated requests for ‘‘Finnish gymnastics’’ and ‘‘comorbidity of insomnia and brain lesioning,’’ but what surprised me was how regularly I searched for other search engines: ‘‘alternative search engines,’’ ‘‘alt search engines,’’ ‘‘search engines that aren’t Google,’’ ‘‘search engines better than Google.’’谷歌(Google)刚一宣布用户可以下载完整的历史搜索记录,我就去点了——于是下载了128948条搜索缓存,这是我过去总在网时长——12年5个月1周零3天——的搜索量。我期待着被一些重复的词条提醒:“芬兰体操”、“失眠共病与脑损伤”。然而让我感到惊讶的是,我搜索其他搜索引擎的频率竟如此之高:“其他搜索引擎”、“替代搜索引擎”、“除谷歌以外的搜索引擎”、“比谷歌好用的搜索引擎”。That’s how I first found my way to Mystery Google, a site that within a year of its introduction in 2009 rebranded itself as Mystery Seeker, the name under which it still operates. The site, in any iteration, has always been an enigma. It’s not clear who founded it, or who runs it, or whether it changed its name because Google threatened legal action or just acquired the domain. By contrast, what the site does is remarkably transparent. You type what you please and click Search; what you get in return are the results for the last query given to the site.我就是这样发现了“Mystery Google”。它上线于2009年,在不到一年时间里重新做了品牌推广,更名为“Mystery Seeker”,现在也还叫这个名字。不管叫什么,这个网站一直都是一个谜。创建它的人未知,运营它的人未知,更不知道更名是否是迫于谷歌的法律威胁,还是谷歌吞掉了这个域名。与此相反的是,这个网站的工作机制很容易理解。用户随便敲进去什么喜欢的东西,点击“搜索”,收到的结果是网站收到的最后一个搜索请求的结果。For example, just now I typed “Who runs Mystery Seeker?” and received results for ‘‘lesbian kittens’’ — apparently the request of the user just before me. The site is an exercise in collective perversion, an antisocial yet communitarian prank. You have to give before you receive, so while I began every session trying to baffle the subsequent seeker, I always ended up off-site, having been outclassed by a stranger: pages on Lincoln-assassination conspiracy theories, Nazi time travel, Mesoamerican apocalypse prophecies and, inevitably, pornography.举个例子,现在,我打入“运营Mystery Seeker的人是谁?”,收到的结果是关于“同性恋小母猫”的搜索内容——显然,我之前的一个用户搜索了这个词条。这个网站是一个集体变态下的行为,一种反社会但又彼此相交流的恶作剧。收到结果之前,你必须给予结果,每次我开始想要给下一个搜索者制造点困惑,我都被陌生人比下去,以出局收场:刺杀林肯阴谋论的文献资料,穿越到纳粹,中美洲末日预言,还有无法避免地,色情。Whenever the results I got were smutty, or racist, I’d respond — I flattered myself that I was responding — by searching for ‘‘feminism’’ or ‘‘peculiar institution.’’ If I got results pertaining to ‘‘Mad Men’’ or ‘‘The Office,’’ the next search I’d log would be for Shostakovich or Goya. These were feeble, futile gestures, of course, self-congratulatory exercises in compensatory karma. I was telling my successor to get some culture. I should’ve been telling myself to get a life.只要得到荤一点的结果,或者种族主义的,我都会回应——我让自己觉得我是在回应——通过搜索“女性主义”或者“奴隶制度”。如果我得到了《广告狂人》(Mad Men)和《办公室》(The Office)的搜索结果,我的下一条搜索会是“肖斯塔科维奇”或“戈雅”。这些是羸弱而又无意义的举动,当然,也是一种自吹自擂的自作自受。我是要告诉我的下一位,有点文化吧。其实我也应该告诉自己,有点生活吧。At the same time, I was investigating the more practical, or just more traditional, alternatives to Google: Bing (owned by Microsoft), Yahoo (operated by Google back then and by Bing now), Info.com (an aggregator of Yahoo/Bing, Google and others) and newer sites like DuckDuckGo and IxQuick (which don’t track your search history), Gibiru and Unbubble (which don’t censor results) and Wolfram Alpha (which curates results).与此同时,我确实在深入研究更加实用,或者说更加传统的谷歌替代品:微软所有的必应(Bing),以前由谷歌运营而现在归于必应的雅虎(Yahoo),雅虎、必应、谷歌和其他引擎的集合品Info.com,还有一些新一点的网站,如DuckDuckGo和IxQuick。IxQuick不记载用户的搜索历史,另外还有Gibiru和Unbubble,不审查结果审查,以及对结果进行编排处理Wolfram Alpha。They were all too organized, too logical — the results were all the same, with only slight differences in the order of their presentation. It seemed to me that the Search Engine of Tomorow couldn’t be concerned with the best way to find what users were searching for, but with the best way to find what users didn’t even know they were searching for.不过这些都太过组织化、逻辑化,它们的搜索结果都差不多,仅在展示的顺序上有细微差别。对我来说,未来的搜索引擎不是去搀和着研究什么最好的方式,以知道用户在搜索什么,而是去研究用户自己都不知道他们在搜索的东西。Among the more entertaining challengers was Bananaslug.com: You type in a word and choose a category — Archetypes, Colors, Emotions — from which the site selects its own word to search in tandem. For instance, I typed in ‘‘Guantánamo’’ and chose the category Jargon Words; the site appended the word ‘‘parse.’’ The results of this collaboration comprised two types of hits: op-eds about the effects of closing the Guantánamo Bay prison and op-eds about the effects of keeping it open. Both sides found the future difficult to parse.存在一些更具精神的挑战者,Bananaslug.com是其中之一:你敲进去一个词,选择一个种类——原型,颜色,情绪——从你选择的种类里,这个网站会选择它自己的关键词来叠加搜索。比如,我就敲进去“关塔那”,然后选择“行业术语”这个种类;网站会挑选“分析”。这样的结果是两个,一个是关闭关塔那监狱的观点,另一个是开放的观点。两边都觉得未来很难分析。Millionshort.com elides the top 100, 1,000, 10,000, 100,000 or one million results of your search, providing more direct connection to less popular chatter. Wackosearch.com determines pertinence by impertinence: Search for “surrealism,” and get sites for the I.C.B.E. (the International Center for Bathroom Etiquette) and an online pregnancy test; search for “socialism,” get sites called Corpses for Sale or Create Farts, and feel proud that in America even irrelevancy is calculated — and while that irrelevancy is free, its method of calculation is proprietary.Millionshort.com则会忽略用户搜索结果的前100、1000、10000、10000或1000000个,这样,它提供了一种联系,让用户接触到不那么流行的话语材料。Wackosearch.com则以不合理性定义合理性:搜索“超现实主义”,得到国际洗手间礼仪中心(the International Center for Bathroom Etiquette),还有,一个线上怀测试;搜索“社会主义”,得到“待售死尸”(Corpses for Sale)和“制屁”(Create Farts)网站,然后你还会感到骄傲,因为在美国,连非相关结果都被计算了。虽然非相关结果是免费的,但这种计算方法是有专利的。Today, most search engines can differentiate among the meanings of “free,” though I’m not always convinced their users can. Google might cost nothing to use, but it compiles dossiers on consumers that it charges advertisers to access. The hope, and the pleasure, of tinkering around with nonsensical search engines has always been the generation of nonsensical data: a man (me?) clicking links for what he doesn’t need or want (latex lederhosen?) can’t be marketed to. There was joy in this, a pubescent pride in having jammed the system and evaded its consequences. This was recreation as political act — or so it seemed.如今,许多搜索引擎都可以区别“免费”这个词的多种含义,虽然我并不觉得他们的用户都能分辨其中的差别。使用谷歌可能不会花任何钱,但谷歌整理了关于用户的私密数据,并以这种档案的接近性向广告商要价。修改这些无意义的搜索结果的乐趣和希望在于,产生出无意义的数据:一个点击了他并不需要或者想要(上胶的皮短裤?)的链接的男人(我?),无法成为市场推广的目标了。这其中自有快乐,就像是一种青春期时期的自豪,给系统添点堵,并逃离后果。也像是类似政治行为的一种消遣——或者,看上去是吧。But as I immersed myself in the workings of search as research for a novel, I became disabused of the idea. My mode of protest was too quixotic: A number of the alt-search engines I’ve mentioned are built on the Bing platform, or are ‘‘Powered by Google,’’ according to the tagline that such sites are required to display. After all, the biggest companies have the best algorithms; smaller sites merely engineer filters and tack their humor on.不过,随着我慢慢像为一本小说做研究一样沉浸在这些搜索的运行原理中,我开始不这么信任这种想法了。我的反抗模式过于浮夸:从网站上被要求显示的标语中可以看到,好几个我提到的替代的搜索引擎,其实是在必应上建立的,或者由谷歌持的。总之,最大的公司拥有最好的算法。小网站仅能够做些过滤,然后融入他们自己的幽默。Even if the joke was on me, I liked it all the same. Besides, it was worth it for the education. I enjoyed the laughs; let them enjoy the data.就算我自己成了一个笑话,也还是乐此不疲。无论如何,这个过程总值得学习。我享受这些笑点,那么,也让那些人去享受他们的数据吧。 /201508/392906

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