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2017年10月24日 11:58:16来源:百姓健康

Cancer therapy癌症治疗Taking aim sooner即将实现对症下药If personalised medicine is to achieve its full potential, it should be used earlier on in clinical trials若想让个体化药物发挥最大潜力,那就应该尽早将它投入临床试验。Jun 9th 2011 | from the print editionONE of the prospects supporters of the Human Genome Project held out was personalised medicine. Knowing which genes were involved in a particular patient’s disease would allow drugs to be deployed with greater precision. That is starting to happen in the field of cancer. Several targeted therapies, aimed at specific cancer-causing mutations, including Gleevec for chronic myelogenous leukaemia and Herceptin for some types of breast cancer, have been spectacularly successful. Yet in most cases of cancer doctors still base their treatment on where in the body a tumour has sprung up, rather than on which molecular aberrations have caused it.人类基因组计划持者认为该计划的前景之一就是个体化药物。通过了解哪些基因与特定病人的疾病存在关联,会使药物的使用更加精确。在癌症领域,这种情况即将成为现实。几种针对特定致癌突变的靶向疗法——包括治疗慢性髓细胞性白血病的格列卫和治疗多种类型乳癌的赫塞汀——所展现出的治疗效果令世人瞩目。而在癌症的大多数病例中,医生们的治疗仍然基于人体中肿瘤出现的位置,而不考虑究竟是哪几种分子畸变导致了肿瘤的发生。The same is true of medical researchers recruiting volunteers for clinical trials, especially those known as phase I trials, in which a new drug is tested on people for the first time. Participants in such trials are often those whose tumour has sp beyond its original site, and will probably prove fatal. Usually, they have tried all proven therapies, to no avail. Their precarious condition means they are rarely accepted for phase II and III trials, which are more complicated and extensive.对于招募临床试验志愿者,尤其是所谓的第一阶段试验(在该阶段,人们要接受新药的第一次人体试验)志愿者的医疗研究员来说,情况也同样如此。该阶段试验的参加者通常是那些肿瘤发生扩散而远离初始位置的人,他们也将因此而有性命之忧。一般来说,他们已然尝试过所有经过验的疗法,却徒劳无功。他们危急的病情意味着只有少数人能接受更为复杂和广泛的第二和第三阶段试验。Oddly, though, even if the drug being tested is a targeted therapy the tradition in phase I trials has been to gather together patients with, say, lung cancer and assume that all carry the relevant mutation. That is because such trials are concerned mainly with testing a drug’s safety, not its efficacy. The volunteers are usually happy to go along with this. But the odds are not good. On average, fewer than 5% of participants in phase I trials respond successfully to the treatment.但是令人感到奇怪的是,即便所试验的药物是一种靶向治疗药物,第一阶段试验的传统也一直是招募病人,比如肺癌患者,并假定他们所有人都携带相关的突变体。那是因为这些试验主要关注点在于测试药品的安全性,而非有效性。志愿者通常愿意从头到尾全程配合,但是效果仍不甚理想。平均来说,在第一阶段试验中只有不到5%的参与者经过治疗后病情大有起色。201106/141187。

  • Egypt has eased restrictions on border crossings for pedestrians from the Gaza Strip. Palestinians see it as a big step toward ending a four-year-old blockade that Israel and Egypt have imposed on the enclave.  埃及放宽行人从加沙地带进入埃及的边境管制,结束了以色列和埃及对这块飞地实施的长达四年的封锁,巴勒斯坦人将此视为重大的一步。A Palestinian border policeman puts a stamp on the passport of Mahmoud al-Hams, a Gaza resident who says he has not left the enclave for years. He is among the first of hundreds who arrived at the Rafah border terminal Saturday before boarding a shuttle bus that would take him past a gate into Egypt.一名巴勒斯坦边境警察将穆罕默德.汉斯的护照盖了章。汉斯是加沙居民,他说他已经有四年没离开过这块飞地了。他是星期六首先抵达拉法边境站的几百人中之一,之后他搭上接驳车,接驳车将他载过边境大门进入埃及。He says he is very happy that he can finally go out and see the world. 他说,他非常高兴终于能出来看看世界了。Egypt began easing restrictions on this border crossing earlier this year following the ouster of Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak, opening this crossing sporadically for those with special permits that were granted on the basis of medical and other needs. 埃及今年早些时候在埃及总统穆巴拉克被赶下台后开始放宽边境管制,不定时开放边境给那些因为医疗或其他需要而获得特殊许可的民众。Now, the crossing is supposed to have regular hours and be open generally to anyone other than men between the ages of 18 and 40. 现在,过境将会有固定时段,将开放给除了18岁到40岁男子的一般大众。201105/138389。
  • A total of 87 new Republican House members will be sworn in Wednesday. Many of them are young Tea Party activists, supporters of a very limited role for government and low taxes, and they say they want to change the way things are done in Washington. 星期三将有87名新任共和党国会议员宣誓就职。其中很多人都是年轻的茶党活动人士,他们持大量限制政府职能,降低税率。他们还说希望能够改变华盛顿做事的方式。Incoming Republican Mike Kelly of Pennsylvania told the CBS News program "Face the Nation" he experienced culture shock when he arrived.来自宾夕法尼亚州的共和党议员迈克.凯利在美国哥伦比亚广播公司“面向全国”节目中说,他抵达华盛顿之后感受到了文化冲击。"My early time here in this city, it is so different than where I come from, because I live in a real world where people actually have to use their own money to pay for things," said Kelly. "So, this idea that you can keep doing this or doing that ... and I love this fact that 'We are going to pay for it.' 'We' are not paying for anything, not 'we' in Washington. The people, the American taxpayer pays for everything. And that is what bothers me, there is such a disconnect between this town and the rest of the world."他说:“我来到这座城市不久,这跟我的家乡差别巨大。因为我生活的是一个真实的世界,那里人们付帐是要花自己的钱的。所以,这种你可以不断做这做那的想法......以及‘我们会付帐’的现实我很喜欢。但是,‘我们’不会为所有东西付帐,这个‘我们’不是在华盛顿的‘我们’,是人民。美国纳税人要为一切付帐。这是让我担心的地方,华盛顿和世界其他地方是如此脱节。”Democratic lawmaker Debbie Wasserman Schultz of Florida told CBS the election campaign is over and Republicans need to stop talking about the "real world" and embrace the hard work of actually governing."What remains to be seen is whether members like Mike Kelly are going to be able to turn their essentially campaign rhetoric into some kind of reality," said Wasserman.On Wednesday outgoing House Speaker Nancy Pelosi, the first female Speaker of the House in U.S. history, is expected to hand the gavel over to John Boehner, a veteran Republican lawmaker from Ohio. She strongly defended the accomplishments of the outgoing Democrat-controlled Congress, saying she has no regrets.星期三,即将离任的众议院第一位女议长佩洛西预计将把议长的锤子交给资深的俄亥俄州共和党议员约翰.贝纳。佩洛西为即将下台的民主党控制的国会强烈辩护,表示她没有任何遗憾。201101/122592。
  • You didnt know you wanted it until you saw it in your friends hand and all of a sudden you realize how, you know, how great it was, how you could get exciting.你不知道对它有一种怎样的感觉,直到你看见它在你朋友的手,突然你意识到,你知道,这是多么美好的一件事。你会因为得到它而感到刺激。Yeah.是啊。Its too convenient to have all of your music in your pocket with.把你所有的音乐都放在口袋里太方便了。Just crazy. It was great. It was like the coolest thing, I dont know, to hit my pocket in a while.非常疯狂。太棒了。这是最酷的,我不知道,它在我的口袋里有一段时间了。Theres no buttons, really. You know it was just like a touch and something miraculous happened to scroll. I feel like Steve Jobs should have like a gang sign. Like this is a gang sign.没有按钮,真的。你知道这就像是只要触摸就会有奇迹发生。我觉得史蒂夫;乔布斯就像一种标志。好像帮派的标志一样吸引人。The headphones became a style icon.耳机成了时尚的代名词。词语解释:1. realize v. 认识,意识2. convenient a. 方便的201111/162547。
  • Have you ever wondered why we swing our arms while walking? Itrsquo;s a curious phenomenon, since arms donrsquo;t play an obvious role in locomotion. You can still walk normally when your arms are full of groceries or with your hands in your pockets, so why do we do it? Isnrsquo;t it a waste of energy? Two independent studies, both published in , may provide some answers to this mystery. The Answer; Using a combination of mechanical models, computer simulations and tests with human walkers and runners, the studies concluded that arm swinging just sort of;happens. In other words, you donrsquo;t need muscles for your arms to start swinging, although you can use muscles to swing your arms higher or more forcefully. If yoursquo;re walking and your arms are hanging relaxed by your sides, they will normally swing in sync with the opposite leg. That is, your right arm swings forward when your left leg steps forward and vice versa.你想过为什么走路时我们要甩胳膊吗?这是很有趣的现象,因为胳膊在走路时并没有明显的作用。当你手上拎着东西或将手口袋里,你仍然可以正常走路。那我们为什么要甩胳膊呢?是在浪费体力?两项发布在年的独立研究也许能为此提供。;;利用机器模型,电脑模拟和对走路的人和跑步的人测验,研究得出:走路时甩胳膊只是一种自然而然的动作。换句话说,你不需要胳膊上的肌肉来甩胳膊,尽管你可以用肌肉来甩胳膊甩得更高些或有力些。走路时如果你的胳膊垂在身体侧面,无事可做,那胳膊就会朝腿运动的相反方向甩动。phenomenon n. 现象locomotion n. 运动independent adj. 独立自主的simulation n. 模拟conclude v.得出结论sync n.同时发生163021。
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