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2018年02月26日 09:21:14

Every year, the World Economic Forum’s Global Gender Gap Report takes stock of where the world stands on gender parity. The newest survey covers 136 economies, most of which have been included since the report’s first edition eight years ago. The report measures the gaps between women and men on education, health, economic participation and political empowerment. Countries are compared and ranked on gender gaps in these four areas and on an index of overall gender parity. 世界经济论坛(WEF)每年都会发布《全球性别差距报告》(Global Gender Gap Report),评估世界范围内的性别平等状况。最新的调查覆盖了136个经济体,其中大部分经济体从八年前首份报告发布起,就一直在覆盖范围内。报告评估了女性和男性在教育、健康、经济参与以及政治赋权方面的差距。各国根据这四个领域的性别差距获得排名,还分别获得一个综合性的性别平等指数。 The good news is that gender gaps, while still wide in many countries, are narrowing in most parts of the world. More than 80 per cent of the countries covered have improved. The gaps in education and health have nearly disappeared in many nations. The bad news is that large gaps in economic and political participation persist even in many developed nations. At the current pace of change, women will not approach full parity on these indicators for another 80 years. That is a huge squandered opportunity not only for several generations of women but for their families, their societies and the world. 好消息是,虽然在很多国家两性差距依然很大,但在世界大多数地区,这一差距正在缩小。接受调查的国家中,超过80%的国家成功缩小了性别差距。在很多国家,教育和健康方面的差距已接近消失。坏消息是,即使在很多发达国家,两性在经济和政治参与方面还存在很大差距。按照当前的变化速度,女性要到80年后才能在这些方面获得完全的平等。这不仅对几代女性来说是一个被浪费的巨大机遇,对于她们的家庭、社会以及整个世界来说都是如此。 To be sure, gender gaps vary enormously among nations. We find that the highest ranking country in the world – Iceland – has closed over 87 per cent of its overall gender gap. By contrast, the lowest ranking country – Yemen – has closed only 51 per cent of this gap. 应当指出的是,各国之间性别差距各不相同。我们发现,在排名最高的国家——冰岛,两性的整体差距已经弥合了87%。与此形成对比的是,在排名最低的也门,性别差距只缩小了51%。 Education is a success story for most of the world and progress is not limited to wealthy countries. Globally, we estimate that 93 per cent of the gender gap in schooling has now disappeared. In 12 countries, including Lesotho and the ed Arab Emirates, the literacy rate for women is actually higher than that for men. In 35 countries, girls are more likely than boys to be enrolled in primary education. In 68 countries, more girls than boys are enrolled in secondary education. At the university level, 69 countries have more women enrolled than men. 对于世界上大部分地区来说,两性差距在教育方面的改善比较显著,且进步不仅局限于富裕国家。全球来看,调查结果显示,在教育方面的两性差距已消失了93%。在莱索托和阿联酋等12个国家,女性识字率实际上还高于男性。35个国家的女孩接受小学教育的可能性要大于男孩。68个国家接受中学教育的女孩要多于男孩。在大学教育层面,69个国家中女生人数多于男生。 The gender gap on health is even smaller. There are some notable exceptions, of course. In China, India, Vietnam and Azerbaijan, for example, female-male birth ratios are still abnormally low. In other nations, such as Bangladesh, Pakistan, Botswana and Qatar, the healthy life expectancy of women is lower than that of men. But the global trend is in the opposite direction. We estimate that 96 per cent of the global gender gap in health has disappeared. 健康方面的性别差距则更小,当然也有一些明显的例外。比如在中国、印度、越南以及阿塞拜疆,女婴/男婴出生比仍低得反常。在其他国家,比如孟加拉国、巴基斯坦、茨瓦纳和卡塔尔,女性的平均健康期望寿命要低于男性。但全球趋势与之相反。调查显示,在健康方面,96%的全球性别差距已经消失。 This is dramatic progress, but it is only part of the story. The gender gaps in economic participation and political power remain much wider – even in many wealthy nations. These gaps also differ significantly among countries. Some of the highest female labour-participation rates are in Malawi, Mozambique and Burundi, where women make up a larger portion of the workforce than men. By contrast, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Algeria and Syria have some of the world’s lowest female labour force participation rates. No country has reached parity on wages. While women hold more than 50 per cent of top management roles in the private and public sector in Jamaica and the Philippines, they make up less than 3 per cent of these positions in Pakistan and Yemen. In the US, women hold 43 per cent of these roles. 这是长足的进步,但还不是全貌。在经济参与和政治权力方面,两性差距依然很大,就连很多富裕国家也是如此。这些差距在不同国家也各有不同。女性参与工作比率最高的国家,包括马拉维、莫桑比克以及布隆迪,在这些国家中女性在劳动力队伍中所占比重高于男性。而巴基斯坦、沙特阿拉伯、阿尔及利亚以及叙利亚的女性参与工作比率为全球最低。没有一个国家实现了同工同酬。虽然牙买加和菲律宾的私人和公共部门顶级管理层中,女性占50%以上,但在巴基斯坦和也门这一比例不到3%。在美国,女性在这些岗位的比重为43%。 With rare exceptions, politics is an area where women fare poorly around the world. No country has reached parity on women in parliament except Rwanda, which is not covered in our report because we lacked other data. In Yemen and Qatar, there are no women in the equivalent of their parliamentary bodies. Norway has the highest share of ministerial posts held by women – 53 per cent – but 10 countries have no female ministers at all. No country has reached parity on the number of years with a female head of government. India ranks first on that indicator, whereas 65 per cent of countries have never had a female head of government over the past 50 years. 除了极少数例外,政治方面世界各地女性的地位都很低。除了卢旺达,没有哪个国家实现了女性在议会议席上的平等(因为缺乏其他数据,卢旺达并不包含在我们的报告中)。在也门和卡塔尔,议会中没有女性。挪威女性部长比例最高(53%),但有10个国家根本就没有女性部长级官员。没有哪个国家女性政府首脑的任期与男性实现平等。在这点上印度排名第一,而65%的国家在过去50年里根本就没有女性政府首脑。 Based on the changes we have tracked over much of the past decade, we estimate that the world will not reach full gender parity for another 80 years. And that projection may well be too optimistic, given that the countries that do not supply data on gender parity may well be those with the worst imbalances. 基于过去十年大部分时间里追踪到的变化,报告预测,世界要到80年后才能实现完全的性别平等。考虑到没有提供性别平等数据的国家可能就是性别最失衡的国家,这一预期可能过于乐观了。 There is nothing natural about the pace of change – it depends on the decisions of individuals, governments and businesses to prioritise long-term returns from gender equality over short-term convenience. So who is winning the race to equality? 变化的步伐并不是自然而然的,它取决于个人、政府以及公司更加注重性别平等所带来的长期回报,而不是短期便利。那么在性别平等的竞赛中谁是赢家呢? We find four distinct groups. The first group includes countries that have had an overall good performance since 2006 (above the median) and are moving ahead rapidly. This group includes Belgium, Switzerland, Lesotho, Luxembourg and Iceland. Iceland is not only aly the top-ranked country, but it also has had the fastest rate of progress over the past eight years in closing the gender gap. These countries have essentially closed their health and education gaps aly and they are moving ahead rapidly on integrating more women into the economy and politics. 我们发现被调查国家分成四个特征鲜明的类别。第一类包括2006年以来整体表现比较好(中等以上)、而且进步较快的国家。这一类包括比利时、瑞士、莱索托、卢森堡以及冰岛。冰岛不仅已经是排名最高的国家,也是过去八年中消除性别差距进步最快的国家。这些国家基本上消除了在健康和教育方面的差距,也在快速让更多女性融入经济和政治领域。 A second group includes countries that performed above the median in 2006 but have since stalled or even reversed their progress. These countries include El Salvador, Sri Lanka, Botswana, Tanzania and Moldova. In this group, the reversals stem mainly from losses to previous gains in political empowerment. 第二类包括2006年时表现中等以上、但自此之后就停滞甚至倒退的国家,包括萨尔瓦多、斯里兰卡、茨瓦纳、坦桑尼亚以及尔多瓦。倒退主要是因为此前在政治赋权方面取得的进展又丢失了。 The third group is composed of countries that were below the median in 2006 – and still are – but have made rapid progress since then. Cameroon, Saudi Arabia, Ecuador, Bolivia and Nicaragua fall in this category. In some of these countries, such as Saudi Arabia, women are a majority of university graduates but only a small minority of the labour force and an even smaller share of leadership positions. 第三类包括2006年时处于中等水平以下(现在仍是)、但自那以来进步较快的国家。这一类包括喀麦隆、沙特、厄瓜多尔、玻利维亚和尼加拉瓜。在其中一些国家,比如沙特,女性占大学毕业生的大多数,但只占劳动力的一小部分,在领导层中的比例就更低。 Finally, a fourth group includes countries that were below the median in 2006 and are falling further behind. This group includes Albania, Mali, Algeria, Kuwait and Zambia. In most of these countries, basics such as education still need improvement. In others, such as Kuwait, the gender gap in economic participation has actually increased, despite a decline in the gender gap in education. 最后就是第四个类别,包括2006年时处于中等以下水平,并且仍在后退的国家。这类国家包括阿尔巴尼亚、马里、阿尔及利亚、科威特以及赞比亚。在其中大多数国家,教育等基础层面依然需要改善。诸如科威特等其他国家在经济参与方面的性别差距实际上有所扩大,尽管在教育方面的性别差距有所缩小。 For the world as a whole, the report shows that 96 per cent of health gaps, 93 per cent of education gaps, 60 per cent of economic gaps and only 21 per cent of political gaps have been closed. Globally, women are almost as healthy and as educated as men. Unfortunately, women are still far from full integration and parity in economic and political decision-making. This is a waste of talent and a missed opportunity to build prosperity. A wide array of studies confirms that countries with large gender gaps tend to be less competitive. 从世界整体来看,报告显示,96%的健康差距,93%的教育差距,60%的经济差距以及21%的政治差距已经消除。全球来看,女性与男性的健康程度和受教育程度几乎一样。不幸的是,在经济和政治决策方面女性还远未实现完全的融合和平等。这在创造繁荣的过程中是一种人才的浪费和错失的机会。大量研究实,性别差距较大的国家往往竞争力也差一些。 While correlation does not prove causality, the reasoning is quite simple. Empowering women means a more efficient use of a nation’s human capital endowment and therefore over time a nation’s competitiveness depends, among other things, on whether and how it educates and utilises its female talent. Similarly, at the company level the best decision-making and innovation occurs when the female talent pool is fully engaged and integrated. 虽然相关性未必就是因果关系,但推理是非常简单的。妇女赋权意味着对一个国家人力资本更加高效率的利用,因此随着时间的转移,决定一个国家的竞争力的,除了别的因素之外,还有如何教育并利用女性人才。类似地,在公司层面,当女性人才得到充分利用并融合时,就会有最佳的决策和创新。 The fact that women make up more than half of university graduates in many developed countries and in many emerging markets, has transformed the global talent pool. Add to that the growing purchasing power of women and it is clear why governments and companies must take account of the rising economic clout of women as consumers, clients, workers and decision makers. The governments and companies that are quickest to recognise these trends will earn high dividends on their investments in gender parity. In today’s world, women’s rights are not only human rights – they are a key determinant of economic performance and winning the race to prosperity has become synonymous with winning the race to equality. 很多发达国家和新兴经济体大学毕业生中女性占一半以上,这个事实转变了全球的人才储备。再加上女性购买力的增加,显然,政府和企业必须考虑女性作为消费者、客户以及决策者不断强化的经济力量。最快意识到这些趋势的政府和企业,将会从性别平等投资获得高回报。在今天的世界,女性权利不仅是人权,也是一个关键的经济表现要素。谁赢得了性别平等的竞赛,谁就赢得了繁荣竞赛。 Laura D. Tyson is a professor of management and director of the Institute for Business and Social Impact at the University of California’s Berkeley-Haas School of Business. Saadia Zahidi is head of the World Economic Forum’s Gender Parity and Human Capital programmes. 劳拉#8226;D#8226;泰森(Laura D. Tyson)是美国加州大学伯克利分校(University of California’s Berkeley)哈斯商学院(Haas School of Business)管理学教授、商业和社会影响研究所(Institute for Business and Social Impact)所长。萨阿迪亚#8226;扎希迪(Saadia Zahidi)是世界经济论坛性别平等和人力资本项目主管。 /201311/266490云南蛋白线减肥法思丽玻尿酸法思丽3-d多少钱昆明吸脂的价格云南省建工医院做去眼袋手术多少钱

军区昆明总医院点痣多少钱云南省中医医院打玻尿酸多少钱昭通市妇幼保健院去眼袋多少钱Today, scientific research in both Asia and the west is providing hard evidence for the health benefits long associated with drinking green tea.Is any other food or drink reported to have as many health benefits as green tea? The Chinese have known about the medicinal benefits of green tea since ancient times, using it to treat everything from headaches to depression.Did you know people are taking green tea extract as an aid to weight loss? Scientific research shows us that this herbal supplement can actually help the body get rid of excess fat by revving up the its metabolic rate, the energy burning process.Metabolism is a chemical process carried out by the body that creates the energy you need to live. Increasing the metabolic rate requires means more fuel is required to be burned and this is where the body will usually draw on its fat reserves to enable the process, this is how your overall weight is reduced.The end result, as desired is of course, is achievement of weight loss. But naturally this only happens as part of an overall effective weight loss program. You still need to eat healthily and take regular exercise.Personally I prefer drinking green tea as it was meant to be and enjoying it that way! But if you do not like the taste then this is a good way to still take advantage of the health benefits.In a grocery store or in a convenience store in front of the beverage cooler you will see green tea this or green tea that. Green tea has turned up in all sorts of products. If you haven’t tried green tea, you might be wondering what all the to-do is about.So now you may be asking what is the difference between green tea and the black tea you are used to drinking. Both teas come from the same plant; the difference is the way the different teas are processed. The green tea in not fermented it has been dried. Because of the shorter processing time the green tea has a lighter flavor than the black tea. Green tea is good for you because the processing keeps all the beneficial elements left in the tea.Green tea doesn’t taste anything like the tea you usually drink. Most green tea drinkers do not add milk or sugar, but you can if you like. Green tea has been described as having a light, fresh, green flavor. Some of the various green teas have just a little sweetness taste to them. Others are a little more astringent. There are several different varieties of green tea each with its own flavor; however they all seem to have one flavor quality in common.To try really good green tea you will want to look in a gourmet tea store rather than a grocery store. The grocery store doesn’t have the selection you will find in a gourmet tea store. You will find a good selection of green teas look in your local Asian food store. Some of the types you will want to look for is; Sencha, Gunpowder, or Dragon Well.Green tea is brewed just like you would brew the tea you normally drink, except you will not want the water to boil. You will want to brew you tea when the water is on the verge of boiling. Green tea is a more delicate tea so you want to the water to be a little cooler.To date, the only negative side effect reported from drinking green tea is insomnia due to the fact that it contains caffeine. However, green tea contains less caffeine than coffee: there are approximately thirty to sixty mg. of caffeine in six - eight ounces of tea, compared to over one-hundred mg. in eight ounces of coffee. 如今,东西方的科学研究不断发现有力的据,明了长期以来人们所相信的饮用绿茶有益健康。还有什么其它食物或饮料如绿茶一般对健康有益吗?中国人自古就知道绿茶的药用价值,用绿茶来治疗从头痛到抑郁的各种疾病。你知道吗,人们正在使用绿茶提取物来辅助减肥。科学研究显示,这种草药添加剂确实能够加速新陈代谢--人体燃烧能量的过程,帮助身体消耗多余的脂肪。新陈代谢是人体制造生存所需能量的化学过程。加速新陈代谢需要燃烧更多燃料,这通常是机体动用脂肪储备的时候,这也是人体减轻体重的原因所在。结果正如人所愿,顺利实现减肥的目标。但是,饮绿茶自然只能作为全面有效减肥计划的一环。你还需要注意膳食健康,进行有规律的锻炼。就个人而言,我倾向于饮用绿茶的原味,因为我喜欢绿茶的味道。但是如果你不喜欢绿茶的味道,你仍然有办法享受它给你健康带来的好处。在杂货店或者便利店,你会在放饮料的冷柜中看到这种绿茶或那种绿茶。早就有了各种各样的绿茶产品。如果你还没有试着喝过绿茶,你可能感到奇怪,这一堆乱七八糟的产品是怎么回事。现在你可能要问了,绿茶和你常喝的红茶有什么不同。两种茶叶都产自同一种茶树;其区别是茶叶的加工过程不一样--绿茶在烘干前没有进行发酵。因为加工过程时间短,绿茶的味道比红茶更清淡。绿茶之所以对你健康有益,因为所有有益成分都保留在茶叶里。绿茶的味道与你通常喝的茶完全不同。大部分喝绿茶的人不往茶里加牛奶,也不加糖,但是如果喜欢,你也可以加。人们常形容绿茶有一种清香、嫩香和青草的香气。一些品种的绿茶带着些许甜味;另外的品种有点苦涩的味道。绿茶有几个品种,各自有各自的香味;可是,它们都具有同一种共同的茶味。要想品尝真正的好茶你应该去精品茶叶店,而不要去一般的杂货店--杂货店的茶叶种类比起茶叶店来太少。到你当地的亚洲食品店看看,你会找到一种好的绿茶。你想要的一些茶有煎茶、中国珠茶、或龙井茶。沏绿茶的方法和沏普通茶一样,只是水不要做开。你要在水将开未开的时候来沏茶。绿茶比一般的茶更嫩,所以水温要低一些。至今为止,喝绿茶有报道的唯一负作用就是由于绿茶中含有的咖啡因造成失眠。不过绿茶中的咖啡因含量比咖啡少得多:6~8盎司茶叶中大约含有30~60mg的咖啡因,而8盎司的咖啡中含有超过100mg咖啡因。 /200804/36814昆明韩城医院整形中心痘坑

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