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时间:2017年10月21日 20:23:31

Claytronics is a form of programmable matter, a collection of sub-millimeter computers essentially.电子粘土是一种可编程物质,本质上是一组亚毫米计算机。These tiny programmable computers are called catoms: claytronic atoms. Just like atoms are the building blocks of everything in the universe, catoms are the basic units of claytronics. Put enough of these catoms together, give them a command and they can assemble themselves into just about anything you want. Imagine that each one of these little pieces of lead which is a catom, a claytronic atom. So its a computer that can move around; communicate with other computers; change its color, and then it works together with all the other units to perform some global effect.这些微小的可编程计算机叫做catoms:电子粘土原子。正如宇宙中任何物质的基本成分是原子一样,catom是电子粘土的基本单位。将足够量的catom放在一起,输入一个命令,它们就会自动组合成你想要的物体。想象一下,每一小块铅都是一粒catom(一粒电子粘土的原子)。它们可以四处移动的微电脑,它们互相联络,改变颜色,然后齐心协力共创神奇。One of the challenges of claytronics is keeping these mini computers attach to one another.电子粘土的挑战之一在于如何使这些微电脑们互相保持联系。And all these robots are using electrostatic forces to hold the robots together. This is the same kind of thing that happens when you take a balloon then you rub it on your hair and you put it on the wool. Then there is the challenge of figuring out the right program.所有的机器人都是利用静电力结合成为一整体。当你拿起气球抹在头发上或者羊毛上时,就会发生同样的静电现象。接下来的挑战就是找出正确的程序。One of the ways to view the programming problem of claytronics is how we get what I call ensemble behavior, getting all of the individual units to cooperate together to perform a global task.可以从另一角度来看电子粘土的编程问题:如何获得我称之为合奏的行为,如何促使个体之间合作,共同执行一个宏大的工程。If Professor Goldstein can pull it off, the results will be amazing.如果戈尔茨坦教授能够完成这项工作的话,结果将会令人震惊。The objects made out of claytronics will be able to form lots of different shapes.由电子粘土制成的物体将会形态各异。And the more of these mini computers there are, the larger the objects that can be manipulated. Thats how your furniture will be able to do double duty, adapting to your needs. With claytronics, the art on your walls could be changed depending upon your mood. Your cell phone could turn into a laptop, and when your work is done, back into a phone. But its most extraordinary application is how claytronics might revolutionize communication.这样的微型电脑越多,制作出来的物体就越大。这就是为什么你的家具有双重用途,还能供你选择。有了电子粘土,你卧室墙上的艺术品就可以根据你的心情随意更换。你的手机也能变成掌上电脑,在你用完后又会变回手机。但是它最卓越的应用程序可能是电子粘土怎样革新通讯。原文译文属!201208/193849

The Plains of Castilla, the bleak heart of central Spain. 卡斯提拉的平原,西班牙中部的黑暗之心。In the 16th and 17th centuries, this barren landscape nurtured some of the most dramatic art in history, from the mystical world of El Greco to the dark visions of Zurbaran and Ribera. 在16和17世纪,这块贫瘠的土壤育出了一些最引人注目的艺术历史,从神秘世界的格列柯到黑暗愿景的苏巴朗和里比尔。This was an art and inspired by fervent Catholicism, and a yearning for contact with god. 这是一种受到狂热的天主教影响的艺术及一种与神联系的渴望。As such fever would become darkness and even savagery, religion and violence intertwined. 像这样的狂热将成为黑暗甚至野蛮,而且宗教和暴力将交织在一起。And as the inquisition struggled to maintain control, Spain would descend into crisis and paranoia. 随着宗教审判竭力进行控制,西班牙将陷入到危机和偏执中。Im travelling through the heart of Spain, through some of the countrys most extraordinary landscapes, to discover how a history so harsh, so violent, could have produced some of the greatest art ever seen. 我穿越西班牙之心,亲眼所见了这个国家一些最非凡的景观,发现一种如此苛刻,如此暴力的历史,而也因此产生了一些世人未曾见过的最伟大的艺术。注:听力文本来源于普特201212/217938

隧道与广播How come we can hear FM longer in a tunnel than AM?为什么在隧道中调频广播比调幅广播的信号要好一点?Its because FM stations transmit at higher frequencies. They generally go from eighty-eight to one-hundred-and-eight megahertz. Thats over a hundred million cycles per second.这是因为调频广播台的传播频率要频繁些。通常在88到108兆赫。即每秒转1亿圈。As a result, a single radio wave from an FM station is only a few meters long, about the size of a car. An AM station is putting out radio waves that are hundreds of times as long!因此,调频广播电台发出的一个电波的长度只有几米,大概是一辆车的大小。而调幅广播站发出的电波长达几百米。Long wavelengths tend to be absorbed or blocked as they try to enter the smaller tunnel. The higher-energy and shorter-wavelength waves from an FM station arent absorbed or blocked as much. Instead, they tend to bounce around and get reflected off of surfaces, much like the inside of a tunnel.在穿越隧道时,长的波长会被吞并阻碍。而来自调频广播高能量,波长又短的电波则不会被吞并或阻碍。相反的,它们会被隧道表面反射回来。Of course, they only bounce so far. If the tunnel is long enough, even FM stations fade out until you come out the other end.当然,它们只会在某个区域内反弹。如果隧道太长的话,即使是调频广播也会逐渐变弱直到驶出隧道。 /201211/208746


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