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Mao Sui Recommending Himself毛遂自荐Historical Record Volume 76 Prince Ping Yuan Biographies:《史记》卷七十六《平原君虞卿列传》记载:Qin’s troops laid siege to Handan, the capital of the State of Zhao.春秋时,秦军在长平一线,大胜赵军。秦军主将白起,领兵乘胜追击,包围了赵国都城邯郸。Therefore, Prince Ping Yuan was to be sent on a mission to the State of Chu to form an alliance against Qin.大敌当前,赵国形势万分危急。平原君奉赵王之命,去楚国求兵解围。Among the guests fed by Ping Yuan was a man called Mao Sui who went up to his host and recommended himself as a member of the Prince’s suite.平原君把门客召集起来,想挑选20个文武全才一起去。他挑了又挑,选了又选,最后还缺一个人。这时,门客毛遂自我推荐,说:“我算一个吧!”The negotiations between the Prince and the King of Chu proceeded without substantial results.到了楚国,楚王只接见平原君一个人。两人坐在殿上,从早晨谈到中午,还没有结果。Seeing this, Mao Sui mounted bravely the platform where the negotiations were being held and stated the advantages and disadvantages.毛遂大步跨上台阶,把出兵援赵有利楚国的道理,作了非常精辟的分析。The King of Chu was at last convinced and decided to dispatch his troops for saving the State of Zhao.毛遂的一番话,说得楚王心悦诚,答应马上出兵。Now, this allusion is used to refer to those who volunteer to offer one’s services for a task or a job.成语“毛遂自荐”由此而来, 比喻不经别人介绍,自我推荐担任某一项工作。 /201509/395383

Born into the age of the flapper, growing up with the frugality of wartime and witnessing the advent of the miniskirt, the Queen has lived through ten different decades of fashion.生于女性追求无拘无束的上世纪20年代,成长于节俭朴素的二战时期,还见了超短裙的诞生,英国女王伊丽莎白二世经历了十个各不相同的时代潮流。For her own part, Elizabeth II is estimated to have worn well over 10,000 outfits to official engagements over her lifetime, created by a series of dedicated designers.据估计,伊丽莎白二世一生中出席官方场合穿过的礼超过一万套。这些装皆由女王御用的设计师设计而成。Now a trio of exhibitions by the Royal Collection Trust to mark the monarch#39;s 90th birthday will put more than 150 different outfits on display to the public.为庆祝女王90岁寿辰,英国皇家收藏信托(Royal Collection Trust)将举办三场展览,向公众展出女王150多套不同装。The largest ever exhibition of the Queen#39;s wardrobe, Fashioning a Reign: 90 Years of Style from The Queen#39;s Wardrobe will bring together childhood fancy dress costumes, military regalia and glamorous ceremonial dresses.此次展览名为“时尚一世:女王90年穿衣之道(Fashioning a Reign: 90 Years of Style from The Queen#39;s Wardrobe),将是史上规模最大的女王装展。展览将呈现女王童年时期的剧、阅兵以及华丽的礼。The three displays will each have a distinct theme. The fancy dress costumes worn by the young Princess Elizabeth at wartime family pantomimes will be on show at Windsor Castle from September 2016 alongside dazzling evening gowns and smart official clothes.三场展览都主题鲜明。温莎城堡(Windsor Castle)的展览将于2016年9月举办,展出二战时期伊丽莎白公主出演家庭童话剧时所穿的剧。此次展览还会展出女王令人炫目的晚礼和干练的正装。It is not known yet which pantomime costumes will be included, but the Queen and her younger sister, the late Princess Margaret, appeared on stage in their youth in a number of shows including Aladdin and Cinderella, where Elizabeth played the role of Prince Florizel.展览将展出哪些童话剧装还尚未可知,但伊丽莎白二世和她的玛格丽特公主(已过世)幼时曾出演多部童话剧,包括《阿拉丁》和《灰姑娘》。在《灰姑娘》中女王扮演的是弗罗利泽王子。She was once again given the male part in a performance of Sleeping Beauty in 1942, where Margaret was Fairy Thistledown and her elder sister Prince Salvador.1942年,在演出《睡美人》时,伊丽莎白二世再次担纲男性角色——萨尔维多王子,而玛格丽特公主则扮演了蓟花仙子。The focus at the Palace of Holyroodhouse will be tartan, tracking the use of the pattern in royal dress over the years. The exhibition at the Edinburgh residence will open on 21 April 2016, the day the Queen turns 90.荷里路德宫(Palace of Holyroodhouse)的展览将围绕花格图案进行,向人们展现历年来皇家礼所用花格图案的历史变迁。这场将在女王的爱丁堡宅邸举行的展览将于2016年4月21日开幕,也就是女王90大寿当天。The flagship exhibition at Buckingham Palace will display the full the sartorial spectrum of the Queen#39;s life, from early childhood to her wedding and coronation clothes and special ensembles put together for State Visits. The display will coincide with the summer opening of the state rooms at the palace from August next year.最为盛大的展览将在白金汉宫(Buckingham Palace)举行。这场展览将完整地展出女王一生的装剪裁变迁,从幼年着装到婚礼礼,从加冕时所穿的礼到为专门为国事访问设计的套装。这场展览将于2016年8月开幕,与白金汉宫的国事厅夏季对外开放的时间一致。Known for her brightly coloured outfits, the Queen once remarked, ;I can never wear beige because nobody will know who I am;.女王以着装颜色鲜艳而闻名,她曾说道:“我绝对不能穿淡棕色的衣,那样可没人能认出我是谁了”。For the wedding of the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge she wore a sunny yellow dress with sunray beading at the neckline, while at her great-grandson#39;s christening she opted for a sky blue shade.剑桥公爵夫妇大婚之际,女王身着明黄色套裙,领口还饰有太阳褶珠绣。重孙乔治小王子受洗时,女王选择了一件天蓝色外套。The Queen is estimated to have completed around 25,000 royal engagements in her lifetime, although some of these involved repeated outfits.据估计,英国女王伊丽莎白二世一生中出席的皇家活动达2.5万场左右,尽管有些装也穿了不止一次。 /201511/407265

Uniforms are a pervasive part of many societies. But in China there seems to be a particular adherence to uniforms. From entering the subway, passing security and stepping onto the train, you will have encountered not one, but multiple uniformed staff. Walking down the street will have meant dodging bright orange street cleaners, food-delivery staff on scooters or identically dressed salon workers receiving their morning briefing. Upon entering your office, you may have passed uniformed security guards on your way to colleagues dressed in suits and ties. They’re inescapable.制是许多社会普遍存在的一部分。但是中国人似乎更钟情于制。当你乘地铁、过安检和坐火车时,你都会看到穿着各种制的工作人员。当你走在街上,随处可以看到穿着明亮橘色制的清洁工,骑着踏板车的送餐员以及接受早训的沙龙务员。当你去办公室时,你会遇见穿着制的保安,以及西装革履的同事。制无处不在。The uniform#39;s place in Chinese society can be traced back through the country#39;s history. As in most places across the world, they have been worn throughout the ages in the military to distinguish between factions and provide protection. Each dynasty favored a different style for its soldiers. Drawings of soldiers from the Eastern Zhou Dynasty (770-221 B.C.) show studded boots and uniforms with heavy arm and torso protection, whereas similar depictions from the Sui Dynasty (A.D. 581-618) illustrate draped and layered military wear. Uniforms were often as fierce as the battles their wearers fought in.制在中国社会的地位是有历史可以追溯的。就像在世界其他地方一样,士兵穿制,一是为了区分军事派别,二是为了提供保护。每一个朝代的士兵制的风格都不同,从东周时期手绘士兵的画像可以看出,他们穿着沉重的靴子和制以保护手臂和身体,同样的,从隋朝时期士兵的画像可以看出,他们都披着一层一层的盔甲。制常常是士兵在激烈战斗中最好的保护。Uniforms were also designed to show status and mark levels of authority. In China, the Terracotta Warriors in Xi’an were molded to wear styles commonly found in the Qin Dynasty (221-207 B.C.). Officers#39; ranks were discernible by their dress, with generals wearing a dual long jacket, long pants, thigh protectors, a crest hat and a pair of boots with square tips.制也通常用来显示权威者的地位和阶级。在中国,西安兵马俑的穿着常见于秦朝。通过他们的穿着,可以明显地分辨出军官的军衔,例如,将军都是穿着两层长袍,长裤子,一双长方靴和带着一顶帽子。But at points throughout history, uniforms were deemed fashion items too. Zhongshan suits (Chinese tunic suits, above) were hugely popular among males in 1950s, with women’s clothing based on a similar style. Introduced by Sun Yat-Sen and made famous by Mao Zedong who favored it in public, hence the nickname ‘Mao suit’, the clothing became a form of national dress.然而在历史上,制也曾是时尚物品。中山装在20世纪50年代非常受欢迎,甚至女性的装也是类似的风格。中山装是由孙中山发明的,由于毛泽东非常喜欢在公共场合穿,因此中山装又称“毛装”。自此中山装成为了一种民族饰。In the military, clothing now follows the generic western style of pants, jacket and a hat. The Zhongshan suit has also undergone modernization. With an altered shape and more streamlined look, the once shapeless garment is now fitted and more flattering for the male body. But while it is still a popular choice for Chinese leaders during important events, tunic suits are rarely seen in wider society.军事上,装一般都是遵循西式的风格,长裤、夹克以及帽子。原本没什么型的中山装也经历了现代化,款式上有了改变,更流线型的外观、更合体的剪裁凸显出男性的身材美。尽管在重要场合,中山装仍是中国领导人的首要选择,但是在社会日常生活中很少见。Yet, there are many places where uniforms live on. This is the case in the hospitality industry in particular, explains Catalina Calin, director of Calin Fashion Academy in Beijing.北京Calin时装学院校长Catalina Calin称,仍然有很多地方需要制,尤其是务业。“In Europe, you don#39;t see uniforms that often [compared to China]. Hospitality is the one industry that is still using them because they can project the type of service or professionalism that you are expecting,; she says. ;A uniform is very important for how a client sees you, but it’s also important for how the employee is feeling. The uniform has to be fitted right for the person to feel confident and beautiful.”“与中国相比,欧洲穿制的人不那么常见。从事务业的人仍然穿制,因为这可以投射出你所期望的务和专业”,她还说,“制是客户如何看待你的一个标准,但员工的感觉也很重要,合身的制穿在身上能够展现自信和美丽”。Calin believes there will be more emphasis on uniforms#39;appearance in the future: ;Chinese ladies are starting to become more conscious of their appearance and beauty. This flows through to the places they work, which have to fit their needs,; she says, citing staff the New World Hotel’s Yin on 12 bar as an example of progression. ;They wear short black skirts, rock-style shoes and dark make-up. This brings a very cool image to the bar.;Calin认为,未来将会更加重视制的外观,她说“中国女性越来越在意自己的外表。她们工作的地方也需满足她们的这一需求”。以New World Hotel酒吧的员工为例,“她们穿黑色短裙,摇滚风的鞋子,画着烟熏妆,这带给人一种非常酷的印象”。But China#39;s love affair with uniforms stretches far beyond hospitality. While there is no single explanation for this, it may reflect a more inherently collectivist culture, where self-identity is shaped by group memberships. In the workplace, or in schools, people feel a stronger sense of self if they are able to define themselves as part of a group.但是在中国,不仅仅是务业钟情于制,虽然对此没有单一的解释,但是这可能反应了一种内在的集体文化,自我认同往往体现在集体关系中。在工作场所或者学校,如果能够成为集体中的一部分,那么他们就有很强的自我认同感。On the streets of Beijing, the way people feel about wearing uniforms varies wildly. Outside Ginza Mall we find Xing (above), a safety officer from Shanxi, wearing a dark blue-black shirt, pants and hat. ;I feel like a soldier when I wear my uniform,; he declares, demonstrating an army-like pose. “It makes me feel like I#39;m part of a team. I like all of it.;在北京的街头,人们对穿制的感受参差不齐。在银座购物中心外面,我们采访了邢,一个来自山西的保安,他穿着一套藏青色的保安(如上图所示)。“当我穿上制时,我感觉自己像一个战士,”他说,同时站了一个军姿,“这让我感觉我是这个团队的一员,我非常喜欢这一切。”But not all are so positive about their work clothes. Zhao (below left), a 55-year-old former architect from Zhangjiakou, has been a cleaner around Dongzhimen for half a year. Like most cleaners, he is given two uniforms (one for winter and a lighter one for summer). Currently, he is wearing an orange jacket and pants and a pair of worn-out gray gloves, while carrying a straw broom and bucket in hand.然而并不是所有的人都喜欢他们的工作,来自张家口的55岁的赵(下图左),之前是一个建筑师,现在在东直门做清洁工已经半年了。像大多数清洁工一样,他有两套工作(一套是冬天的,一套是夏天的)。目前,他穿着一套橙色的装,带着一副破烂的灰色手套,手里拿着扫帚和桶。;I don#39;t like the color. If I could change my uniform I#39;d change the color because the orange doesn#39;t look very attractive. The uniform isn#39;t comfortable. It#39;s checked regularly though so we can#39;t change it in any way,; says Zhao, who says that cleaners all wear their own shoes but that their employers provide washing powder.他说,“我不喜欢这个颜色。如果我能改变我的工作,我会改变这个颜色,因为橙色不大好看。而且这个工作也不舒,因为会定期检查,所以我们没法改变它”,他还说,清洁工都是穿自己的鞋子,但是雇主会提供洗衣粉。In fact, cleaners#39; uniforms in Beijing differ according to location. One cleaner at Tiananmen Square, Liu (above right), 51, wears a royal-blue suit with yellow accents as he rides in a small electric cart with a bucket picking up trash. ;My uniform is comfortable and I think the blue looks good,; he says.事实上,工作区域不同,北京清洁工的制也是不同的。刘(上图右)今年51岁,是天安门广场的一个清洁工,穿着一件宝蓝色制,前胸是一抹醒目的黄色,他骑着一辆小型电动车,后面是一个捡垃圾的铲斗。他说,“我的制很舒,我觉得蓝色很好看。”His uniform is in stark contrast to Zhao#39;s bright orange. The latter#39;s dress may be down to practical considerations, such as the heavy traffic in Dongzhimen and the need for greater visibility. But in the restaurant world, the style of uniform is largely dependent on the establishment#39;s level of service and cuisine. High-end restaurants feature more of a classic style (shirt, pants) than those found in fast-food restaurants, for instance, which favor casual wear in the form of polos and tracksuits.他的蓝色制与赵的橙色制形成鲜明对比。后者可能出于实际穿衣的考虑,例如,东直门的交通繁忙,需要更大的关注度。但是在餐饮业,制的风格很大程度上取决于务和烹饪的水平。高级餐厅比快餐厅的制风格更经典,通常是衬衫和长裤,而快餐厅会穿休闲装,比如马球衫和运动。Zhang (above left), a server at the popular Guijie restaurant Culiang Renjia, wears a floral-printed top-and-pant combination with simple black shoes and pigtailed hair. Apart from a faint resemblance to pajamas, the uniform is visually appealing, and it fits the restaurant#39;s theme of nostalgia.张(上图左),是簋街粗粮人家餐厅的务员,穿着一套印花套装,一双简单的黑布鞋,梳着麻花辫。除了有点像睡衣这点不足外,这套制看起来很有吸引力,这非常符合餐厅怀旧的风格。;I like my uniform because it#39;s unique and looks nice,” she says. ;It#39;s very comfortable.;“我非常喜欢我的制,因为它看起来很独特,很不错”,她说,“而且它很舒”。As in most countries, uniform wearing begins from a young age in China. A student at Beijing No. 55 Middle School, 12-year old Fu (below), wears the mandatory tracksuit school uniform in blue, white and red. The tracksuit-style uniform has been worn by schoolchildren for more than two decades.像许多国家一样,中国人也是从很小的年纪开始穿制的。附(下图),北京第55中学的学生,今年12岁了,身着学校强制性统一的蓝白红相间的校。学生穿运动风格的校已经20多年了。;Foreigners at my school don#39;t have to wear the uniform. I#39;d rather not have to wear it either because I don#39;t think it looks very good. I think other countries#39; school uniforms look much better.;“外国学生在我们学校不用穿校。我也不想穿,因为我觉得我们的校不好看,我觉得其他国家的校要好看得多。”She tells us that her school has three uniforms (though all are variations on the tracksuit), which cost RMB480 altogether. The tracksuits were designed – like many school uniforms – to prevent comparisons between students#39; appearances and to eliminate worries over clothing choice. The style fulfills these criteria, but at what cost? As one online commentator bluntly assessed: ;They are the ugliest in the world.;他告诉我们,学校共发了三套校(都是运动风格的),一共480元。像许多校一样,运动风格的设计是为了防止学生之间攀比,也是为了消除学生选择穿什么衣的忧虑。校满足这些要求,但是代价是什么呢?一位在线者直言不讳地评价:“这些校是全世界最丑的。”This particular comment came after US First Lady Michelle Obama visited a Beijing high school in 2014 and photos from the trip were splashed across social media. Commentators pointed out that the tracksuit is practical and wear-resistant, though many expressed that other designs can fulfill the same goals.这个特别的是在美国第一夫人米歇尔2014年访问北京一所高中时发表的,她的行程照片被刊登在社交媒体上。者指出运动很实用,耐磨,但是很多人同时表示其他设计也能达到这一要求。For students, as with adults, uniforms can increase the wearer#39;s confidence. Some believe that more stylish school wear may help students perform better (or feel happier, at least). In April 2013, the Henan Provincial Experimental School in Zhengzhou decided to let students design their own uniforms. The results were met with praise from parents and the public, and delight from students.学生和成年人一样,穿制可以增加他们的信心。一些人表示穿时髦的校可以帮助学生表现得更好(至少他们会感到更开心)。2013年4月,河南省郑州市实验学校决定让学生自己设计校,这一决定受到家长和公众的一致好评,学生也从中得到了乐趣。;Students have their own sense of aesthetics at their age,; the school#39;s Student Affairs Director, Feng Yan, told CCTV.“这个年龄段的学生有他们自己的审美观”,该校的教务处主任冯艳告诉央视。Such experiments are not necessarily a sign of relaxing attitudes toward uniforms in contemporary China. Despite a growing sense of individualism among younger generations, uniforms#39; historic, cultural and practical role may see them widely retained across the country – and across industries. But while dressing in the same way may be, in some respects, the antithesis of fashion, uniforms are also subject to change over time. If these changes can accommodate both function and form, their place in society may be safe for some time to come.这一实验并不是指当代中国对制有了一定放松的态度。尽管年轻一代有着越来越强烈的个人主义观念,但制的历史性、文化性和实用性在全国各地广泛地保留着,而且是跨行业。在某些方面,穿着一样的衣可能是站在时尚的对立面,但制也在随着时间的改变而改变。如果这些改变能够同时兼顾功能和形式,那么制在社会中仍将保持它的地位。 /201511/409788

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