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来源:光明特惠    发布时间:2017年12月16日 11:22:29    编辑:admin         

A geostationary satellite orbitsthe planet at the same rate asthe planet rotates, so the satellite is always over the same patchof ground.同步卫星以行星旋转的速度绕着行星运动,所以卫星总是处在地面同一块地方的上空。Cool! you say. Id like to have one of those about twenty feet over my house.你会说,好酷!我宁愿有一个离我们房子只有二十英尺的卫星。Sadly, geos onlywork easily at one distance:不幸地,同步卫星只能在同一个高度工作,22,500 miles up.Why is that?22,500 米的高空。为什么?Other satellites can have different orbits, cant they?其他卫星有不同的轨道,他们有吗?Yes, they can. But thats because they can also move at different speeds.是的,他们有。那是因为他们能以不同的速度运动,A geo doesnt have thatoption-by definition it must orbit at the same speed as the earth turns.而同步卫星没有那样的选择 他必须与地球自转同速运动。And that speeddetermines how high up it must be!运动速度决定了他必须在的高度。A satellite has to move at a certain speed to balance out gravity; otherwise it wont stay in orbit.卫星必须以某一确定速度运动来平衡我们的重力;否则将不能保持在同一轨道上。Now, a geo must move at the speed the earth turns.现在,同步卫星必须以地球自转的速度同速运动。If you put it in a very low altitude, that speed wouldnt be enough to balance gravity.如果处于很低的高度,卫星的速度将不足以平衡重力。Go higher, though, and gravity gets weaker.高度越高,重力越小。At 22,500 miles, gravity will be just weak enough sothat a satellite moving at the speed of the earths rotation will stay in orbit without help.在22,500的高空,重力小到可以使卫星在没有帮助的情况下与地球同速运动,并且始终在同一轨道上。Of course, if you wanted to have a geo at a different altitude, you could always attach rockets toit and have them push continuously.当然,如果你想有一个在不同高度的同步卫星,可以把卫星附在火箭,让火箭不断推动卫星前进。But thats a pretty expensive option. At 22,500 miles,nothing else is required.但是,这是相当昂贵的选择。在22500的高空,其他什么东西都不需要。201411/340145。

Urban planning城市规划Rail ambition铁路大设想Cities used to think modern art could save them. Now its railway stations城市的救命稻草由过去的现代艺术转为地铁车站IN JANUARY commuters voted Birmingham New Street one of Britains worst railway stations. Each day nearly 150,000 people move through a structure built for half as many. But by next year it will be transformed, with 400 tonnes of undulating steel cladding and a vaguely eyeball appearance. The station will have “the wow factor”, boasts Sir Albert Bore, the leader of Birmingham city council. It will also show how much attitudes to railway stations have changed.今年1月,英国上班族的投票结果显示伯明翰新街火车站是全英最差的火车站。每天都有15万人都要去挤这个容量只有人流量一半的车站上下班。但明年,情况将有所改善—车站将使用400顿的包钢材料,带给人们一种模糊的视觉体验。伯明翰市长Albert Bore夸耀说,这个车站将会使走过路过的人情不自禁的叫出声来,使乘客对火车站的态度实现360度大转弯。Railway stations are the chief exception to the rule that Britain invests too little in infrastructure. Of the 17 big termini managed by Network Rail, the owner of Britains tracks, 11 are being redeveloped or have recently been completed. Five other stations, including Reading and Northampton, are being spruced up by local councils and Network Rail.英国向来对基础设施的投资就少,但火车站则是一个例外。英国铁道所有者铁路网管理的17个火车站中,有11个使乘客对火车站的态度实现360度大转弯,还有5个(包括雷丁火车站和北安普顿火车站)由当地政府和铁路局负责翻新修理。Some simply need to be expanded: the number of train journeys has risen by 35% since 2005. But the design of New Street suggests aspirations well beyond more easeful travel. The building would not look out of place in Dubai and is striking, if slightly incongruous, in the grey West Midlands. City planners wanted something monumental, like Grand Central station in New York, says Sir Bernard Zissman, chairman of the independent design panel.有一些则只需要扩建:自2005年起,搭乘火车旅行的人次上升了35%。但是新街火车站的设计表明,改良的初衷不仅仅是为了实现提供“更舒适的旅行”这一基本目的。这种独特亮眼的建筑出现在迪拜很合适,但是在灰蒙蒙的西米德兰兹郡,就有那么点不合时宜了。城市规划者、独立设计小组主席Bernard Zissman解释说想建一些地标性的建筑物,就像纽约的中央车站一样。“Twenty or thirty years ago business people were more likely to arrive in a city by car,” explains Jon Neale of Jones Lang LaSalle, a property specialist. Town planners duly carved out motorways and roundabouts to entice them. In 1962 a local politician claimed that a new design for Birmingham, involving an inner ring road, would make it “one of the finest city centres in Europe”.仲量联行的房地产专家Jon Neale说,二三十年以前,商人们大多数情况下都会坐车,因为城市规划者不失时宜地开发了很多高速公路和环状交叉路口诱惑他们。1962年,一位当地政客称会在伯明翰开始新的城市规划,包括建设一条内环路,使其成为“欧洲最好的市中心之一”。Cities now measure their appeal by their stations. Businesses cluster around them: at Kings Cross, a once-grimy part of north London, a postcode has been created for all the new buildings around the station, which was redeveloped in 2013. John Lewis, an upmarket department store, will open in the mall above New Street (which is indeed called “Grand Central”) along with 60 other shops. The council hopes it will pull in visitors to the city.当今很多城市都用他们的火车站衡量城市魅力。车站附近也建起了商业圈:英国王十字车站曾是北伦敦一个污秽不堪的地方,2013年重建后,所有车站周围的新建筑都被赋予了一个新的邮编。高档百货公司John Lewis将会在新街车站上面开一家商城(命名为“中央车站”)以及60家商店。市政当局希望这会吸引更多游客。Such ambition recalls the stations of the 19th century. Those structures “spoke to the corporate sensibility of a city,” says Tristram Hunt, an MP and historian, by combining commerce with the sheen of civic pride. The first New Street station, built in 1851, had the largest single-span roof in the country at the time. It was torn down by enthusiastic 1960s town planners. Now some of its original lustre may return.这样宏大的构想让人想起了19世纪的车站。历史学家兼国会议员Tristram Hunt说,那些建筑结合了商业贸易和公民自豪感,向企业家们诉说着城市的点滴与沉淀。1851年修建的第一个新街火车站有那个时代最大的单拱桥屋顶。20世纪60年代,狂热的城市规划者将它拆掉。而现在,那些原先的光辉可能重返。译者:张丹 校对:徐珍 译文属译生译世 /201511/407513。

North Korea fired two ballistic missiles Thursday morning, it was stated by a South Korean military official. 韩国军方官员称,周四上午朝鲜发射了2枚弹道导弹。This is the most recent controversial move during U.S.-South Korean military drills that have angered the state. 美韩两国进行军事演戏激怒朝鲜,这是最近一次颇具争议的举动。The reported launch comes after angry speech from North Korea in recent days that has included threats of an anticipatory nuclear strike. 导弹发射紧跟着朝鲜最近几天发表的愤怒讲话,包括预期的核打击威胁。On Tuesday, North Korean state media displayed leader Kim Jong-un standing next to what it claimed was a scaled-down nuclear warhead capable of being used on a long-range missile.周二,朝鲜官方媒体展示了领导人金正恩站在声称的能用于远程导弹的缩小型核弹头旁。译文属。201603/430688。

听力参考文本(文本与音频不全一致,敬请谅解):Its the political roundup with Ken Sikkema and Susan Demas.A new Detroit News and WDIV poll shows Republican candidate Donald Trump slipping and Democrat Hillary Clinton gaining in Michigan. Her lead has widened by nearly 12 percentage points.This week Governor Snyder called the presidential election a ;huge mess; and said Trumps comments about women were ;revolting and disgusting.;While Republicans like Snyder - who never endorsed Trump - are speaking out, other Republicans have been defending Trumps statements as merely ;locker room talk.;Its hardly the first Trump-centric story weve seen throughout this election cycle, but according to Demas, this one is ;kryptonite.;;This is nothing that Trump needs with Independents and undecided women, with religious women, and even with some steady Republican female voters,; she said.Sikkema told us that Trump has put Republicans on ballots everywhere in a tough position.;What you see is Republicans just being between this rock and a hard place,; he said. ;For a lot of these Republicans, its a no-win situation. You disavow Trump, you alienate his supporters, core Republican voters. If you embrace Trump, you alienate suburban independent voters, particularly women voters.;Sikkema and Demas talk more about Trump and the 8th Congressional district race in our conversation above.201610/471657。

Cavalry scales passed down for generations from father to son, each the proud bearer of the heritage of his warrior ancestors.骑术在父传子下世代流传,每一位都继承骁勇祖先的精神。At a secret prayer site, Tsering Gyalpo, a native of these parts, makes his offering to his ancestors, and the divine.在札布让王宫的祈祷处和嘉波才让祭拜祖先及天地。This is my prayer…I will make offers again and again…and give thanks for the blessing and protection provided me.我诚心祈求,我将不断来此献祭,感谢天地祝福和保护我。My spirit offers eternal devotion.我的灵魂将奉献至永生。After the fall of the last Guge King, Tsaparang became an unpleasant place for its citizens.古格王朝最后一位国王战败后,札布让成为人民的痛苦之地。The Ladakhs had ministered the region for 50 years before being driven out by the Tibetans and their mongo allies.拉达克统治该区五十年之久之后被西藏与蒙古人联手击退。The mongos did not take well to the canyons and dry lands of western Tibet, they decided to relocate the capital to higher more open ground.蒙古人并不适应,西藏深邃的峡谷与那片藏西的干地,他们打算重新安置到,更高更广阔的地点。With that relocation of the capital of western Tibet, Guge arterially falls into ruins and decay which has continued to the very present day.由于首都从西藏的西部迁出,古格从此完全陷入没落与衰退,这种状况一直延续到如今。After the defeat and demise of Guges last king, the reigns of power were arranged to take a hoover by the spiritual leader of another Buddhist sect, the 5th Dalai Lama.古格王朝最后一位国王战败后,另一个佛教教派的精神领袖取得了权力,亦即达赖喇嘛五世。Ironically, the kings brother, the abbot who fought for a Buddhist state, had won the final battle after all.古格国王的胞弟赢得了最后胜利。The ancient kings of Guge had a vision of a land of Dharma of secret holiness which has left an indelible mark, not only on Tsaparang, but on all of Tibet.古格王朝的国王想要建立神圣的宗教净土因而留下不可抹灭的印记不单在札布让,也在整个西藏。Their gift of Buddhism remains strong and deeply ingrained in the memory of what was once a great kingdom—the kingdom of Guge.他们所遗留下来的佛教仍深植于古格王朝的后世记忆之中。 译文属201605/445169。

Is it ;healthy eating; or ;healthful eating?; Is there even a difference?For some people, there is. Anne Curzan, professor of English literature at the University of Michigan, is y to lead us into the nuanced world of grammarians, where some distinctions are a little more complicated than they seem.While Curzan was giving a talk on grammar pet peeves, someone expressed a moment of frustration: ;People keep saying eat healthy food! And I cant stand it!;Although this might make you scratch your head, there is a rule behind it. In the 19th century, many grammarians sought to make words complement each other. They tried this with healthy and healthful. ;To say healthful,; says Curzan, ;should mean conducive to or causing health, and healthy should mean experiencing good health.;;The problem is that healthy has meant both those things for hundreds of years, and the distinction has never really held,; says Curzan. ;So I have to say I think this rule has not made it.;But this isnt the only place where grammarians tried to create complementary distribution in the language. Theres another example: shall and will.;In the first person,; says Curzan. ;In other words, with I or we, you use shall to express the simple future. Then you use will to express obligation, necessity, determination, or permission.;But if you use either word in the second or third person, the rules flip-flop. That means if you use you, he, or she, then will expresses the simple future and shall expresses permission/obligation/determination.What were they thinking!? If youre looking for a grammarian to blame for this headache, Curzan suggests looking back at John Wallis, a 17th century bishop and mathematician. But dont be too hard on his memory, as the rule hasnt aged very well. According to Curzan, its commonly used in just one place: legal writing, where the word shall expresses a legal obligation.But this, too, is controversial, as the word shall is often misused. Lawyer Bryan Garner, an expert on legal grammar, has more or less given up on it. ;His practice, at this point, is to always replace it with will or may or must in order to clarify,; says Curzan.It might seem like grammarians just make the rules, but sometimes they will be the first to break them.201510/404299。