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2017年10月24日 12:08:02来源:兰州晨报


  • This is Florida, a taste of the tropical, one of the worlds most popular holiday destinations. Here mankinds unquenchable desire to explore and colonise reaches astronomical proportions. 这里是弗罗里达,一个充满热带风情的地方,同时也是世界上最著名的度假胜地之一。这里带给人们无法克制的探索和无穷的征欲望。Eight, seven, six, five, four, three, two, one. Ignition. Lift off.八、七、六、五、四、三、二、一。点火,发射。And yet we are relative newcomers here. While other creatures roamed this part of North America for hundreds of millennia, we only arrived at the end of the last great ice age, 13,000 years ago. For most of its existence, North America remained untouched by humans, its dramatic landscapes and wild life undisturbed. Then some time around 13,000 years ago, just as the ice started to relax its grip, hunters from the north set foot in Florida for the first time. Imagine if we could go back and join them as they explore this unknown land, encountering strange animals not seen before by human eyes.然而在这里,我们还只能算是初来乍到。其他生物已经在北美的这块土地徘徊了数十万年,而我们在13000年前的大冰河时期末期来到这里。对大多数存在的生物,北美仍是人类未及之地。这里风景优美,野生动物未受打扰的生活着。约在13000年以前,冰川开始渐渐化去,猎人从北而来,第一次涉足弗洛里达。想象一下,如果时间倒退,我们将追随者猎人的足迹,探寻这未知之地,遇见人类从未见过的奇异的生物。英文文本来自普特英语,译文属.201307/247621
  • Water gets into a fishs body through osmosis, the process in which water diffuses from a higher to a lower concentration.水通过渗透作用进入鱼儿的身体,在这一过程中,水从高浓度的地方扩散至低浓度的地方。For example, if there is more water outside of a cell than inside, water will try to flow into the cell until there is the same concentration of water on either side of the cells membrane. The body of a fish acts the same way, either absorbing or losing water depending on its surroundings.比方说,如果细胞外的水多于细胞内,水就会流入细胞内,直到细胞膜内外的浓度相同。鱼儿的身体与细胞一样,吸水还是失水取决于它生存的环境。Whether a fish absorbs or loses water is based on the fact that all fish must maintain a certain amount of salt in their bodies to stay healthy. Fish that live in fresh water have a higher concentration of salt in their bodies than the surrounding water.不管鱼儿吸水还是失水,事实上,所有的鱼要想保持健康其体内就必须维持一定量的盐分。淡水鱼体内盐的浓度要高于周围的水。Consequently, water continuously flows into the fishs body to attempt to dilute the amount of salt in the fish until it is equal to the amount of salt in the surrounding water. Since fish cannot allow their salt content to be diminished, their kidneys work overtime to expel excess water in the form of urine.因此,水就不断地进入鱼儿的体内以稀释盐份,直到鱼儿体内与外界的盐的浓度持平。因为鱼儿自身无法减少体内的盐分,所以他们的肾就要不断工作以将多余的水以尿液的形式排出体外。Ocean fish have the opposite problem. Surrounded by salt water, their bodies contain a relatively lower concentration of salt than the ocean water. In this case, osmosis causes the fish to constantly lose water in order to equalize salt concentration inside and outside the fish.海鱼的问题则恰恰相反。由于被盐水包围,他们体内盐的浓度与海水相比相对较低。在这种情况下,渗透作用使得鱼儿不停地失水以平衡体内外盐的浓度。To partially compensate for the water loss, ocean fish actually drink water through their mouths. To get rid of the excess salt they take in by drinking seawater, they excrete some salt through cells in their gills.为了补偿失去的部分水分,海水鱼通常要用嘴喝水。而为了去除喝海水带来的多余盐分,它们会通过腮里的细胞排出一些盐分。 /201305/240168
  • The Sinodependency index中国依赖指数Declaration of Chindependence跨国企业对中国市场的“独立宣言”For an American multinational, is exposure to China still a good thing?对于美国的跨国企业来说,把命运寄托在中国市场上的做法还是一种明智的选择吗?Jul 20th 2013 | SYDNEY |From the print editionBEFORE the global financial crisis, emerging economies like China aspired to “decouple” themselves from the rich world, hoping that local demand and regional trade would sustain them even if Western markets faltered. After the crisis, rich economies aspired to couple themselves with China, one of the few sources of growth in a moribund world. Carmakers in Germany, iron-ore miners in Australia and milk-powder makers in New Zealand all benefited enormously from exports to the Middle Kingdom. Every company needed a China story to tell.在全球金融危机前,像中国这样的新兴经济体一直不愿同富国掺和在一起,他们希望拉动内部需求,促进区域内贸易,这样即使在西方市场衰退之际也能保持经济发展。在经济崩溃的大背景下,中国是为数不多依然还能保持经济增长的国家之一。金融危机后,富国都想和中国加强经贸联系。德国的汽车企业,澳大利亚的铁矿石开采公司以及新西兰的奶粉制造商向中国大量出口,都获得丰厚的利润。每个企业的都渴望进驻中国市场。Explore Sinodependency by year and sector with our interactive “tree-map”浏览交互式的树状图了解下每年各行业的“中国依赖指数”But as China slows and America gradually recovers, those stories are becoming less compelling. Some of them are turning into cautionary tales. Exposure to China does not always endear a firm to investors, as GlaxoSmithKline, a British pharmaceutical giant embroiled in a corruption scandal in the country, is now discovering. 但是随着中国经济增速放缓,美国经济逐渐复苏,中国市场也并不那么吸引人了,一些公司在中国的发展境遇还起了警示作用。外资公司和中国虽联系密切,但他们会发现自己并不受欢迎,如卷入行贿门事件的英国制药业巨头葛兰素史克肯定对此深有体会。As a rough gauge of multinational exposure to China, The Economist in 2010 introduced the Sinodependency index, a stockmarket index that weights American multinationals according to their China revenues. The latest version of the index includes all of the members of the Samp;P 500 index that provide a usable geographical breakdown of their revenues. The weight of each of these 133 firms in the index reflects their market capitalisation multiplied by China’s share of their revenues. A company worth 100 billion dollars that derives 10% of its revenues from China has the same weight as one worth 20 billion dollars deriving half of its revenues from China. Where firms report their revenues for Asia-Pacific but not for China, the index assumes that China’s share of regional revenues matches its share of regional GDP.《经济学家》杂志于2010年引入了一种股价指数——“中国依赖指数”作为粗略衡量跨国企业对中国依赖度的标准,该指数是根据这些企业在中国取得的收入将其在中国市场的比重作为权数,对应相应的公司股价,进行加权处理而得出的。最新的“中国依赖指数”覆盖了位于美国标准普尔500指数之列且能提供不同地域收入细目的所有公司。133家企业的各自权数反映了他们的市值与其在中国收入占总收入的比重的乘积。市值为1000亿美元在中国收入占总收入10%的公司,其权数与市值为200亿美元在中国收入占总收入一半的公司的权数一样。对于那些只公布在整个亚太地区收入的公司而不公布在中国的收入,该指数假设这些公司在中国的收入所占份额就是其在这一区域的GDP中所占的份额。The biggest members of the index are Apple, with an 11% weight in 2013, followed by Qualcomm (8.3%) and Intel (7%). Most of the firms in the index are more dependent on China now than they were. China accounted for 11.2% of their revenues on average in 2012, compared with 9.8% in .苹果是“中国依赖指数”最高的企业,2013年的权数为11%,其次为8.3%的高通和7%的英特尔。加入该指数中的大多数企业如今更加依赖中国了。相对于年这些企业在中国的收入占比平均为9.8%,2012年在中国的收入占比已为11.2%了。Although the dependence has risen, the rewards have not (see chart). After handily outperforming the Samp;P 500 benchmark in -11, the Sinodependency index has since struggled to keep pace. So far this year it has risen by 9.6%. That is far better than China’s own stockmarkets, which have fallen by over 9%. But both have been overshadowed by the much stronger performance of the conventional Samp;P 500 index, which is up by 18%. Perhaps the 367 Samp;P 500 companies that are not in our index should loudly proclaim their Sino-independence.不过虽然对中国的依赖程度上升,股票回报率却并未相应上升(如图所示)。在-11年度轻松高出标准普尔500基准指数后,“中国依赖指数”便自此难跟上标普500指数的脚步了。今年到目前为止“中国依赖指数”涨幅为9.6%,表现要比中国的股票市场好得多,中国股市跌幅已超过9%。然而“对中国依赖指数”和中国股市的股指相对于表现强劲的传统标准普尔500指数来说只能望其项背,标普500指数涨幅为18%。也许另外367家不在“中国依赖指数”覆盖范围内的标普500企业能骄傲地声称他们是对中国一点都不依赖。 /201307/249684
  • Electricity supply电力供应Profitable interruptions盈利性的中断Collecting and trading spare electricity is a thriving industry备用电力的收集与交易是一蓬勃发展的新兴行业SPIKES in demand for power and unexpected dips in supply have plagued electricity generators and their customers for decades. The solutions have been crude. More than a decade ago North American power companies started paying big consumers to switch off machines and devices to ease the load on creaking grids. In 2003 French producers did the same to cope with a heatwave.激增的电力需求以及意想不到供给匮乏已经困扰了电力供应商及其客户数十年之久。并且他们的解决方案原始而粗鲁。十多年前北美电力公司开始赔付大的客户用以关闭机器以及设备从而能够缓解勉强运转的电网压力的金额。在2003年的时候法国的生产商为了应付反常的高温也做了同样的事情。In some ways the problem has worsened. The rise in the use of renewable power, especially in Europe, has led to surges of supply on sunny and windy days and unpredictable lulls in conditions of cloud and calm. But that is a big opportunity for “demand-response” companies, which use computing power and clever algorithms to divert electricity from some consumers, such as factories or greenhouses, to users who need it more.从某种程度而言,问题已经开始恶化。尤其是在欧洲,增加可再生能源的使用已经导致了在晴朗以及有风的天气里的浪潮以及在在多云和无风的条件下不可想象的静止,不过这对于那些运用运算能力以及巧妙的算法来从一些客户那里—诸如工厂和温室,转移电流给那些共需要的用户的“需求响应”公司而言是一个巨大的机遇。Pioneered by technology firms rather than power producers, demand response is strongest in North America, but it is sping fast. In a control room in Londons fashionable Soho district, Ziko Abram of Kiwi Power shows off a “virtual” power plant with a capacity of more than 100 megawatts. Kiwi pays users for agreeing to switch off cooling and heating, pumps and other equipment when asked. A switch installed on a users premises might be programmed to cut off power to freezers, for example, when they are cold enough. In other cases, Kiwi negotiates the cutoff with the consumer. It sells the spare capacity thus created to the National Grid.技术型企业似乎比电力生产商更加倡导这样的模式,虽然“需求响应”在美国做的是最强的,但它传播的非常的迅速。在现今时髦的伦敦Soho区的一个控制室内,Kiwi Power的Ziko Abram展示了一个容量超过100万瓦特“虚拟的”电厂。Kiwi会因为在必要的时候客户同意切断冷气、暖气、泵以及其他的设备赔付客户。将一个开关安装在住户之处使得切断冰柜的功率成为可能的程序,例如当冷气已经足够的时候。在其他的情况下,Kiwi会就断电一事与客户协商。它出售了闲置的生产设备从而来来建立国家电网。Along with competitors such as Flexitricity, Kiwi also buys the right to use standby diesel generators in hospitals, government buildings and elsewhere. Rather than waste fuel by testing these machines every week, these institutions let Kiwis technology switch them on when the grid requires. In power-poor South Africa an American firm, Comverge, has created a market in which companies can sell the electricity they choose not to consume.与诸如Flexitricity的竞争对手一样,Kiwi同样的购买了医院、政府建设以及其他一些地方的备用柴油发电机的使用权。与其让每周的机器固定测试浪费燃料,倒不如让这些体系使Kiwi的技术能够掌控它们当电力被需要的时候。在电力缺乏的南非地区,一家美国公司,Comverge,已经选择输送电力给那些他们认为不会消耗能源的公司作为开拓市场。Such services cope with spikes in consumption, which are mostly foreseeable. Fluctuations in wind and cloud can cause gluts or shortages within minutes. The conventional way to offset this is through gas, hydro or modern coal-fuelled power stations, which can be switched on or off quickly. But getting consumers to change their habits a little is potentially much cheaper.这样的务用以应付那些大多都可预测的能源消耗高峰期。有风的日子或者阴天的波动会在分分钟之内引起供过于求或者是能源短缺。用来抵消波动的传统方法是通过煤气、水利或者现代的燃煤发电站,它们均可以快速的被启动或切断。不过稍稍的改变一下消费者的生活习惯可能会比这便宜许多。The prospects in Europe have brought a flurry of acquisitions. The worlds biggest demand-response firm, Enernoc, a publicly traded American company, has bought a dozen foreign providers since 2005. Nearly 20% of its 383m revenues come from abroad. In February it bought Entelios, the biggest German company, with 600MW of capacity, and Activation Energy, the leading Irish firm.这在英国的前景是带来了一连串的收购。世界上最大的需求响应公司,美国上市公司Enerno,自2005年起已经并购了十二个外国供应商,其三十八亿三千万的收入有将近有20%来自于国外。在二月份的时候它有并购了Entelios这个德国最大的企业,拥有六十亿瓦特的容量,以及活化能,爱尔兰公司的领导者。The industry has plenty of room to grow. In America it accounts for more than 20 gigawatts, or 2% of the total installed capacity, according to Colin McKerracher, an analyst at Bloomberg New Energy Finance. It is concentrated in the north-east of the country. In the European Union, a much larger energy market, capacity is only 5.4GW, but BNEF forecasts it will grow to 15.3GW by 2020. Pulse Energy, a Canadian firm, expects to double its customer base to 2m by Christmas.按照Colin McKerracher,这位彭新能源财经分析师的看法,这位这个行业有很的的发展空间,在美国它约占两千亿瓦特或者说总装机容量百分之二的比例。集中于国家的东北地区。在欧盟,这个更大的能源市场,其容量只有54亿瓦特。但是BNEF预测其会在2020年的时候增长至153亿瓦特。Pulse Energy,一家加拿大企业,希望到圣诞节的时候他们的客户群能够扩大一倍,达到二百万之多。Demand response still faces scepticism. People who run and regulate the network like power stations they can see, not virtual ones. “Is that really the sort of country we want to be—where you just cut the power off when supply gets tight?” asks an executive at one of Britains “big six” energy providers. David Brewster of Enernoc says changing “100 years of policy and mindset” is a “slow grind”.“需求响应”也同样面临着质疑。那些经营或者管理网络的的人希望发电站是可以看得见摸得着的而不是虚拟的。“这确实是我们想要成为的那一类型吗—仅仅是在供应紧张之时切断电源吗?”一个英国品牌“big six”的电量供应商的高级行政人员质疑道。Enernoc的David Brewster认为改变“100年的政策和方向”是一个“缓慢的折磨”。Some parts of America aly have well developed markets in capacity, where demand-response providers can bid alongside conventional power producers for supply contracts, typically three years in advance. Their cost advantage makes them increasingly competitive,美国一些已经拥有良好市场容量的发达地区,“需求响应”的供应商可以与常规电力生产商为供应合同—通常来讲是提前三年,共同报价。他们的成本优势使得其越来越有竞争力。Such markets are starting in Europe, too, but rules are still being written. Providers worry that regulators will tilt them in favour of conventional producers on such issues as response time and how much aggregation will be allowed.这样的市场同样的也开始在欧洲发展,但是规则仍在编写之中。供应商担心监管者会在一些问题上,例如反应时间以及聚合多少的问题上,来撬动他们来赞成传统生产厂商。To be credible, demand response must be reliable. Grid managers want to know the power will be there when needed. That may favour the bigger demand-response companies—and the utilities, which could dominate the industry if they chose to enter it. Upstarts claim they have smarter algorithms. They say they are creating prime electricity out of subprime portfolios. That analogy will reassure neither customers nor rulemakers.为了变得更加可靠,需求反应必须是切实可信赖的。电网管理者想要知道电力是能够用在刀刃上的。这也许会赞成较大的“需求响应公司”—以及那些如果他们选择进入的话能够成为行业主导的公用事业。新贵们声称他们拥有更加智能的运算法则。他们说他们正在创造主要电力的次级抵押贷款投资组合。这样的类比会使得消费者以及规则制定者都能够消除顾虑。 /201405/301198
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